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26 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are neurons?
What are neurons?
Specialized cells in the nervous system that send and receive information.
What are sensory neurons?
Neurons that send information from sensory receptors to the brain.
What are motor neurons?
Neurons that send commands from the brain to the glands, muscles and organs to inhibit something.
What are inter-neurons?
Neurons that connect sensory neurons input signals with the motor neurons output signals.
What is the soma?
What is the soma?
The cell body of the neuron that contains the nucleus.
What are dendrites?
What are dendrites?
'Branchlike' extensions of the soma that receives information from other neurons.
What is an axon?
What is an axon?
Sends information in form of electrochemical impulses to other neurons. (Extension of the soma)
What is myelin sheath?
What is myelin sheath?
A protective coating of fatty cells around an axon.
What are terminal buttons?
What are terminal buttons?
'Knoblike' tips that closely approach but do not touch, the dendrites of other neurons.
What is the synapse?
What is the synapse?
The entire area composed of the terminal button of one neuron, the synaptic cleft and the dendrite of another neuron.
What is the synaptic cleft?
What is the synaptic cleft?
The space between the terminal buttons and the dendrites, which is less than a millionth of an inch wide.
What are synaptic vesicles?
What are synaptic vesicles?
Tiny round sacs contained in the terminal button that contains neurotransmitters, released at the synapse.
What are neurotransmitters?
Chemical messengers released by the synaptic vesicles that travel across the synaptic cleft to excite or inhibit neurons.
What are glial cells?
Non-neuron cells that supply the neurons with support, nutrients and insulation. They also help form the blood-brain barrier.
What is the blood-brain barrier?
What is the blood-brain barrier?
A semipermeable membrane-like mechanism that prevents certain chemicals from entering the bloodstream to the brain.
What is the resting potential?
What is the resting potential?
The stable, negative charge of an inactive neuron. (-70mV)
What is the action potential?
What is the action potential?
The brief shift in a neuron's electrical charge that travels down the axon. (+30mV)
What is polarization?
What is polarization?
The neuron is at its resting state. (Resting potential)
What is depolarization?
What is depolarization?
The axon switches from negative to positive.
What is hyper-polarization?
What is hyper-polarization?
A change in a cell's membrane potential that makes it more negative. It is the opposite of a depolarization. (Below -70mV)
What is the refractory period?
What is the refractory period?
The period immediately following the transmission of an impulse in nerve or muscle, in which a neuron or muscle cell regains its ability to transmit another impulse.
What are endorphins?
A family of neurotransmitters that play an important role in the experience of pleasure and the control of pain.
What is acetylcholine (ACh)?
A neurotransmitter involved in muscle contractions and memory formation.
What is domapine (DA)?
A neurotransmitter that promotes and facilitates movement, as well as influencing thought + emotion.
What is norepinephrine (NE)?
A neurotransmitter that plays a role involved in stress, wakefulness and mood.
What is serotonin?
A neurotransmitter that is involved in a number of psychological processes, especially in regulating emotional states, aggression, appetite and sleep onset.