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Descriptive statistics include measures such as mean or standard deviation. What is another group of statistics that is used to determine what kind of conclusions can be drawn from the results of an experiment?

Inferential statistics

Inferential statistics? Internal statistics? Applied statistics? Validity coefficients?

The ethical analysis and reporting of scientific results is regulated by:

The honour system

National review boards? Federal grant agency systems? The honour system? Research ethics boards?

A double blind study:

Minimizes expectancy effects

Cannot be used to determine cause and effect? Minimizes expectancy effects? Usually lacks reliability? Necessarily has sufficient power to detect group differences?

Edward Titchener is known for:

Establishing structuralism in the United States

Writing a devastating critique of the functionalist works of John Watson? Establishing the behaviourist concentration within psychology? Writing Beyond Freedom and Dignity? Establishing structuralism in the United States

William James is _____ as Wilhelm Wundt is to _____.

Functionalism; Structuralism

Functionalism; structuralism? Structuralism; behaviourism? Functionalism; behaviourism? Structuralism; functionalism?

A testable prediction derived from a theory is termed a(n):

Hypothesis

William James (1890) believed that the influence of ___ could help explain absentmindedness.

Habit

Sleep deprivation? Personality? Habit? Emotions?

The closer an experiment is to the real world, the more psychologists can claim it has:

External validity

External validity? Statistical significance? Internal validity? Reliability?

Hermann von Hemholts is to ____ as Willhelm is to ____.

Reaction time; structualism

Phrenology; functionalism? Reaction time; functionalism? Reaction time; structuralism? Phrenology; structuralism?

The functionalist approach was MOST influenced by the theory of:

Natural selection

Phrenology? Nativism? Natural selection? Psychodynamics?

Theory

A coherent network of explanatory ideas (why/how something occurs)

What are Case studies

In depth examination of the life of one person; looks at advantages and different advantages; finds qualities, but making conclusions based on one person is biased and you can't generalize

What is correlational research

Designed to identify what goes with what, not casual relationships; can identify relationships among variables as they occur naturally; ways of doing a study (test creates variables, and then statistical analysis is done)

Increasing Number of deaths and increasing number of ice cream sales

Correlational coefficient

Between -1 and 1, the closer to one the stronger the relationship; CORRELATION DOES NOT MEAN CAUSATION; there is a third variable problem

What is involved in experimental methods?

Used to determine causality, whether one variable causes another; two key requirements (manipulation of variables, ensure participants in each experimental condition are equivalent or randomly assigned); must be an independent and dependent variable

The capilano bridge experiment

Researchers wanted to examine the concept of mislabeling feelings of fear as feelings of romantic attraction depending on the environment by watching people walk across a scary bridge and then write a story about a picture.

Sources of data: Self-report data (S-data)

Information provided by a person, such as through a survey or interview; wealth of information, otherwise inaccessible; limitations include honesty and self-knowledge

Deception

Used in studies where a genuine and realistic or naive response is needed, so revealing the true nature of the study doesn't affect the response of participants

Sources of data: Observer report data (O-data)

Information provided by someone else about another person; information not attainable through other sources; can use multiple observers (ex. Of a small child)

Sources of data: Test-data (T-data)

Information provided by standardized tests or testing situations; see if different people behave differently in identical situations; ex. We all have the same midterm but will get different marks; mechanical recording devices can be used such as fMRI and pedometer; limitations include the artificial setting and researcher influence

Sources of data: Life Outcome Data (L-data)

Important real life information that is available for public scrutiny (marriage, speeding tickets, divorce rates, etc.)

Statistics = decision tools: are the results significant?

Clear uniform objective criteria; transparent, reduces bias; statistic significance, the claim that an observed relation or difference between two variables is not due to chance

What is analysis good for?

Graphical representations help interpretation, communication

Step 5 of the research process: Report the findings

Prepare a report for publication (scholarly journal); peer review process takes place (in an attempt to ensure scientific rigour)

Step 6&7 of the Research process: what is the purpose of scientific discourse

To receive reactions from other researchers; question of replication, resulting in the question of the next study

Ethics in Research

Absolute requirement for anyone in the field; based on historical abuses; Canadian shameful history of unethical research projects on indigenous children in residential schools

What are the 4 Ethics Principles?

1. Respect for the dignity of persons


2. Responsible caring (ex. Children)


3. Integrity in relationships


4. Responsibility to society

Who is Michael Chan and what does he study?

He is a researcher at Trent, focussing on eye tracking

What are the responsibilities as participants in research?

Honest, open; bad data costs time and resources; ex. Is it okay to watch people pee? This was a study analyzing the effect of the invasion of personal space on the speed and flow on men's urination

Describe a valence and arousal map

Valence: how positive or negative an experience is


Arousal: how active or passive the experience is

Emotion

A positive or negative experience that is associated with a particular pattern of psychological activity

James-Lange Theory

A stimulus triggers activity in the body, which in turn produces an emotional experience in the brain

Canon-Bard Theory

A stimulus simultaneously triggers activity in the body and emotional experience in the brain

Why didn't Canon agree with James' theory?

1- emotions happen quickly even though the body reacts slowly


2- people often have difficulty detecting physiological changes in the body


3- non emotional stimuli can create the same effect as emotional stimuli (ex. Temp increase)


4- not enough unique patterns of bodily activity to account for all the unique emotional experiences people have

Schachter and Singer agreed with both theories to an extent, developing the idea of what?

Undifferentiated physiological arousal; emotions are merely different interpretations of a single pattern of bodily activity

What is the two factor theory?

The theory that emotions are based on inferences about the causes of physiological arousal

What happens when the amygdala is damaged?

People will not feel fear when they see a threat, but will feel fear when they experience a threat

What is appraisal?

An evaluation of the emotion-relevant aspects of a stimulus, an organism must undergo this process before they feel fear

Define emotion regulation

The strategies people use to influence their own emotional experience

What is the best strategy of emotion regulation

Reappraisal: showing a picture of a woman crying elicits an emotional and sad response, but when they were told it was a part of a wedding, they were happy

Emotional expression

An observable indicator of an emotional state

Universality hypothesis

Emotional expressions can cause the emotional experiences they signify

Deceptive Expression: what are the techniques?

Intensification: exaggerating an expression of one's emotion


De-intensification: muting the expression of one's emotion


Masking: involves expressing one emotion while feeling another


Neutralizing: involves feeling an emotion but displaying no expression

What are the four features of observing expression?

Morphology: reliable muscles or eye crinkles show whether a person is smiling or not


Symmetry: sincere is symmetic


Duration: longer smiles are usually more genuine


Temporal patterning: genuine expression is a bit smoother, while insincere expression tends to be more abrupt

Display rule

A norm for the appropriate expression of emotion

Motivation

The purpose for or psychological cause for an action

Hedonic principle

The claim that people are motivated to experience pleasure and avoid pain

Drive

An internal state caused by physiological needs

Bulimia nervosa

An eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging (puking)

Anorexia nervosa

An eating disorder characterized by an intense fear of being fat and severe restriction of food intake

Metabolism

The rate at which energy is used by the body

Human sexual response cycle

The stages of physiological arousal during sexual activity

Intrinsic motivation

A motivation to take actions that are themselves rewarding

Extrinsic motivation

A motivation to take actions that lead to reward

Conscious motivations

Motivations of which people are aware

Unconscious motivations

Motivations of which people are not aware

Need for achievement

The motivation to solve worthwhile problems

Approach motivation

A motivation to experience a positive outcome

Avoidance motivation

A motivation not to experience a negative outcome

Terror management theory

A theory about how people respond to knowledge of their own mortality

What does Lisa Nisbett study

She studies Individual Differences in Emotion. She was published in the Journal of Happiness studies

3 things that involve emotion

1. Subjective conscious experience


2. Bodily arousal


3. Characteristic overt expressions

Experience of emotion depends on what?

1. Physiological arousal


2. Cognitive interpretation

Alexithmia

Inability to detect emotions

What are some sympathetic reactions?

Far vision, dry mouth, goose bumps, sweaty palms, increased heart rate

Fight/flight

What are some parasympathetic reactions?

Near vision, salivating mouth, no goosebumps, dry palms, decreased heart rate