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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the definition of psychology?
-"study of the mind"
-Scientific study of behavior and mental processes
What is the difference between overt and convert?
-Overt= behavior we can see, motions
-Convert= internal, feelings
Who was Wilhelm Wundt?
-"father of psychology"
-Structuralism= reactions to stimuli, introspection (but problems like lying)
Who was Edward Titchener?
-Renamed structuralism, analyzed structure of mental life
-But disagreed over observations, subjective
Who was William James?
-Functionalism= broadened psychology
-Influenced by Darwin
Who was John Watson?
Behavioralism= "father", introspection unscientific, must study behavior objectively, object to study the "mind"
Who was Skinner?
Radical behavioralism= deny mental processes exist (just behavior), studied reward/punishments with animals
Who was Max Wertheimer?
-Gestalt=able to make meaningful patterns in our minds
-whole is greater than the parts
Who was Freud?
-Psychoanlysis=behavior influenced by unconscious wishes/desires
-Childhood affect on personality
What was humanism?
-Rejected Freud
-Study unique aspect on personality of a person, innate goodness
-Moslaw= studied ppl in good health, make use of talents and full capabilities
What the 4 ways humans establish belief?
1. Authority
2. Tenacity= refusing to alter one's beliefs
3. A priori= w/o prior study, common sense
4. Science= empiricism
What is empirical sense?
"Commonsense" beliefs are often wrong
What are the 4 major research perspectives?
-Biological= brain and nervous system
-Cognitive= mental processes (perception memory)
-Behavioral= environmental events
-Sociocultural= other people and culture/upbringing
What is hindsight bias?
The tendency, after learning an outcome, to be overconfident in one's ability to have predicted it (seems obvious)
What are the 3 types of descriptive methods?
-Observational techniques= directly observes the behavior
-Case studies= studies an individual over a long period of time
-Survey research= questionnaires and interviews to collect info
What is random sampling?
Each individual in the population has an equal opportunity of being in the sample
What is random assignment?
Randomly assigning the participants to groups
What are the roles of the independent/dependent variables?
Independent variable was the hypothesized cause and is manipulated. Dependent is affected by independent
What is an operational definition?
Description of operations or procedures used to manipulate a variable
What is the placebo effect?
Improvement due to the expectation of improvement because of receiving treatment
What is meta-analysis?
Combines results for a large number of studies on one experimental question into one analysis to get a conclusion
What are the measures of central tendency?
Median, mean, and mode
What are measures of variability?
Range, standard deviation