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59 Cards in this Set

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Hebb

Underlying neural structures

Hebb

Intervening Variables of Mediation

Hebb is similar to which previously studied theorist?

Hull

Hebb and Hull are similar how?

They both suggested that human behavior can be understood through hypothetical inferred mediational variables

Hebb's model is primarily concerned with?

Concerned with explaining thought process and perceptions




Concerned with thinking between stimulus and response

What is Hebb's Mediating Process

Basic Hypothesis - mediation (thinking) consists of activity in a group of neurons -- cell assemblies or phase sequences

Mediating Process : Assumption 1

A cell assembly is established as a result f the repeated firing cells

Mediating Process : Assumption 2

If two cells assembly are repeatedly active at the same time, an association between two will tend to form

Mediating Process : Assumption 3

An assembly that is active at the same time as an efferent pathway will tend to form an association with it.

According to Hebb learning is...?

Learning is the permanent facilitation of conduction among neural units

Tolman

Purposive Behaviorism

Hebb is what kind of theorist?

Transitional/Cognitive

Tolman is what kind of theorist?

Transitional/Cognitive

Is Tolman molecular or molar?

Molar

Who said, "We do not simply respond to stimuli; we act on beliefs express attitudes and strive towards goals."

Tolman

Tolman's Goal is to what?

To recognize cognitive aspects of behavior without sacrificing objectivity


*studies behavior as it is organized around a purpose

Tolman's Idea of the linking of "intervening variables" to stimuli and responses is similar to who?

Hull

Tolman's Intervening Variable is?

Cognitions

What is Tolman's Latent Learning?

The learning remains latent until a goal or demand is experienced which relates to the learning.

Which theorist believes in:




Latent Learning




Cognitive Maps

Tolman's Ideas

What is Tolman's Cognitive Maps?

Internal representations of relationships between goals and behaviors as well as knowledge of where the goals are found

Is Tolman molecular or molar?

Molar

Which theorist believed in Perception, Gestalts, and the whole is greater than the sum of the parts?

Wertheimer

Which theorist believed, "Breaking consciousness into its pars destroys what is most meaningful"?

Wertheimer

What is Wertheimer's Gestalt?

The whole is greater than the sum of parts




*The whole is greater than the sum of parts

Is Wertheimer Molar or Molecular?

Molar

Which theorist believed in the Spiral Staircase built on Previous Learning?

Bruner

Bruner is what kind of theorist?

Cognitvie

Which theorist focused on representation and categorization?

Bruner

What is Bruner's Enactive Representation?

Using motor capabilities to learn.

Which is an example of Bruner's Enactive Representation?

Moving pasta noodles around to do math




*Motor

What is Bruner's Iconic Representation?

Use of mental images that represents certain objects/events -- bears literal resemblances to its references


*sensory

What is an example of Bruner's Symbolic Representation?

Knowing the number 3 represents 3 objects


*Intellectual

Which theorist believed in Schemas, Stages, Assimilation, and Accomadation?

Piaget

What is Piaget's Intervening Variable?

Schema

What is Piaget's Schema?

Stereotype of how something is.


Creates a quick way to what we are dealing with




*Organizing structures for mental activity. More general cognition which are ways of perceiving. Understanding and thinking about the world.

What is Piaget's Accommodation?

Process by which schemas change




*Responding on previous knowledge given

What is Piaget's Assimilation?

Process by which schemas influence the interpretation of experiences




*Responding on previous knowledge combined with new knowledge

What is Piaget's Equilibration?

The process or tendencies that lead to the balance between assimilation and accommodation.

What are Piaget 4 Stages?

1.) Sensory/Motor (Birth to 2)


2.) Preoperational (2-7)


3.) Concrete Operations (7-11)


4.) Formal Operation (11-16)

What is Piaget's Sensory/Motor stage?

(Birth - 2yrs): Children deal with perceptions of the world and coordination by which they interact with the world.




*If you don't sense it; it doesn't exist


*Peek-A-Boo

What is Piaget's Greatest Contribution?

Children deal with perceptions of the world and coordination by which they interact with the world.

What is Piaget's Pre-operational stage?

(2yrs-7yrs) : Children begin to show the effects of having learned language and are able to represent objects symbolically



What are examples of Piaget's Pre-operational stage?

*Any male similar to dad is dad


*Any thing they see is theirs


*Don't know how to understand someone else's opinions and feelings (egocentric)


*Stacking game

What is Piaget's Concrete Operations stage?

(7yrs-11yrs) : Children show an increased cognitive flexibility...

Piaget influenced what community?

This theorist influenced the education system

Which theorist gives a primary role to forces that are WITHIN the child?

Piaget's Theory

What is Piaget's Formal Operation stage?

(11yrs-16yrs) : Children's abilities for symbolic manipulation reaches its peak.




Can view a variety of issues abstractly.




Can explore different ways of solving a problem and can solve abstract issues independent of content

What stage of Piaget's is this an example of?




If you could have a third eye where would it be?



Answer: On the back of the head to see in front and behind (abstract thinking).

Piaget's Formal Operation stage?

Which theorist believed Scaffolding built on social interaction?

Vygotsky

What is Vygotsky's scaffolding?

Telling, demonstrating, showing , correcting pointing.




It emphasizes the importance of interaction between the educator and educated.




Stresses the importance of presenting the learner with challenges that lie within the range of what the adult can help with

What is an example of Vygotsky's scaffolding

Jump Roping - encourage, jump, hold hand wile jumping, do hand motions, then do all at once




Hopscotching

Vygotsky's Theory Is?

Is an attempt to explain consciousness as the end product of socialization.




*Learning of language

Vygotsky's Main Focus is?

Cognitive Development

Which theorist believes, "We learn by participating."

Vygotsky's situated learning theory?

Vygotsky's scope and Application was with?

Most original work of cognitive development was done in the context of langue learning in children

Vygotsky's Principles are?

1.) Cognitive development is limited to a certain range of any given age




2.) Full cognitive development requires social interaction...

What does Vygotsky's theory emphasize?

Emphasizes forces that are OUTSIDE the child




*CULTURE

What did Vygotsky influence?

Influence educational system