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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Prejudice
a preconceived negative judgement of a group and its individual members
Stereotype
a belief about the personal attributes of a group of people
discrimination
unjustified negative behavior toward a group or its members
racism
1. individual's prjudicial attitudes toward a people of a certain race
2. institutional pratices that subordinate people of a given race
sexism
just like racism but towards people of a certain sex
dual attitude system
we have explicit and implicit attitudes toward the same object
"Implicit Associations Test"
sees online now how people see white or black as "good"
demonstrates how implicit attitudes much harder to change than explicit
Modern American attitudes about interacial marriage
77% of americans now approve of interracial marriage where it was 4% in 1958
Buying a car and Race
Ian Ayers in 1990 found that car dealers gave lower prices to White Male and Female customers that Black customers and charged the Black females the most
MIT: Race and Resumes
Sent out resumes with white and black names, the white resumes heard back 1 out of 10 times the black 1 out of 15 times
social dominance orientation
a motivation to have one's group dominate other social groups
ehtnocentric
beleiving in the superiority of one's own ethnic group
authoritarian personality
personality that is disposed to favor obediance and authority and intolerance of outgroups as well as those of lower status
Face-ism
Eva Kruz studied faces portrayed in the media whinle in Gemrany 1989 and found face promient portrayals made those figures seem more intelligent and ambitous to people; adds to the fact that males are protrayed with faces women with their whole body and this perpetuates gender biases
Scapegoat Theory
displace agression causes groups to find a scapegoat
realistic group conflict theory
theory that prejudice arises from competition btwn groups for scarce resources
social identity
the "we" aspect of self-concept, the group memberships that answer "who am I"
ingroup
"us" group individual belong too
outgroup
"them" group that is percieved as distinctively different than ingroup
ingroup bias
tendency to favor one's own group
outgroup homogenity effect
perception of outgroup as
own-race bias
tendency for people to more accurately recognize faces of their own race
stigma consciousness
a person's expectation of being victimized by prejudice or discrimination
1990 Gallup Poll
Showed that US Population overestimates minority populations
group-serving bias
explaining away outgroup members' positive behaviors; also attributing negative behaviors to their dispositions
linguistic intergroup bias
specific part of group-serving bias where you change the way you discuss behaviors depending if actors are ingroup or outgroup members
just-world phenomenon
tendency of people to believe that the world is just and people get what they deserve
Johanne Huart 2005
found people recalled the 70% male face or 30% male face as male up to 80% male
subtyping
accommodating individuals who deviate from stereotype by thinking of them as exceptions to the rule
subgrouping
accommodating individuals who deviate from stereotype by forming a new stereotype about this subset of the gorup
stereotype threat
a disruptive concern, when facing a negative stereotype, that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype
aggression
physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone
hostile aggression
aggression driven by anger and performed as an end in itself
instrumental aggression
aggression that is a means to some other end
instinctive behavior
an innate unlearned behavior pattern exhibited by all members of a species
frustration-aggression theory
the theory that frustration triggers a readiness to aggress
frustration
blocking of goal directed behavior
displacement
redirection of aggression to a target other than the source of the frustration
relative deprivation
perception that one is less well-off than others with whom one compares oneself
social learning theory
Bandura, theory that we learn by observing or imitating and by being rewarded or punished
prosocial behavior
positive, constructive, helpful social behavior
social scripts
culturally provided mental instructions for how to act in various situations
conflict
a perceived incompatibility of actions or goals
peace
a condition marked by low levels of hostility and aggression and by mutually beneficial relationships
social trap
a situation in which the conflicting parties, each pursuing its self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior
Tragedy of the Commons
happens when individuals take more than their fair share of a common resource
non-zero-sum games
games in which outcomes need not sum to zero, wit cooperation both can win
equal-status contact
contact on an equal basis
GRIT
Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in tension reduction