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138 Cards in this Set

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Case studies

not constrained in rules


method you use when don't know what questions to ask

correlational method

looking for realtionships


method used when researcher cannot manipulate

correlation doesn't imply

causation

true laboratory experiment

manipulation of one variable under controlled conditions

operational definitions

used to clarify what is meant by each variable

strengths of true lab experiement

conclusions about cause and effect can be drawn

weakness of true lab experiemtn

artificial nature of experiments and ethical and practical issues

Cells of the nervous system

glia-support staff


neurons- where the action is

dendrites

branching fibers with a surface lined with synaptic receptors


receives messages and info

axon

when dendrites pick up signals, if its excitatory, it will travel down axon

presynaptic vesicles

"holding something"


has neurotransmitters

a cell is

electrically charged

at rest, the membrane maintains a

polarization (-70)

resting potential

state of neuron prior to the sending of a nerve impulse

negative proteins make inside of the cell

negatively charged

membrane is selectively

permeable allowing some chemicals to pass more freely than other

when membrane is at rest

sodium channels are closed and potassium and chloride can pass

resting potential remains stable until

neuron is stimulated

hyperpolarization

increasing the polarization

depolarization

decreasing the polarization to zero

threshold of excitement

a level above which any stimulation produces a massive depolarization

excitatory

depolarixation

inhibitory

hyperpolarization

when at -70 mv

polarized, resting state

refractory period

drops below -70 and cannot be stimulated by another neuron

anesthetic drugs block sodium channels

preventing action potentials from occuring

novacain and xylcaine

close sodium channels

scorpian venom

opens sodium channels, causes convulsions

myelin

insulating composed of fats and preoteins

myelin sheath of axons are interrupted by

nodes on ranvier

in babies myelization process is

incomplete

multtiple sclerosis

myelin is breaking down


problems with movement

saltatory conduction

jumping from node to node

seizure disorder

sudden excessive activity of cerebral neurons

Absent seizures are hard to diagnose

thought to be ADD

aura

a foreshadowing

loss of consciousness

from complete collapse to staring off into space

motor component

hand rubbing, chewing

has to have a seizure when brain activity was assessed

eeg

symptomatic

associated with a specific cause like infection, fever, tumor, trauma, toxin

idiopathic

if seizures appear in the absence of a disease

space between neuron

synapse

presynaptic neuron

end result of an action potential is neurotransmitters being dumped into synapse

post synaptic neuron

dendrites receive message- if excitatory lets sodium in, if inhibiotry becomes hyperpolarized

Acetylcholine

controls muscles and regulated memory (motor neurons)

Curare

blocks acetylcholine- used in hunting

dopamine

produces feelings of pleasure when released by brain reward system.

addictive drugs increase

dopamine

dopamine is associated with schizophrenia

break from reality


delusions


poor interactions with others



Dopamine is associated with parkinson

problems initiating movement

GABA

major inhibitory nt


low levels of GABA

seizure disorder

glutamate

common excitatory nt

excess levels of glutamate

seizure disorder

norepinephrine

acts as part of fight or flight. also a regulator of normal brain processes

Norepinephrine associated with drugs

speed, amphetamines (used to lose weight)

some people developed amphetamine

psychosis

serotonin

involved in many functions including mood, appetite, and sensory perception.

in spinal cord serotinin

is inhibitory in pain pathways

drugs increase

number of impulses

drugs release nt

with or without impulses

drugs block

reuptake or block receptors


blocking repute means more of the nt

drugs produce more or less

nt

drugs prevent vesicles

from releasing nt

agonist

increase/promote presence of nt

antagonist

decrease amount of nt

serotonin agonist

ssri's more nt


zoloft, paxil, prozac

dopamine agonist

l-dopa


treating parkinsons patients

dopamine antagonist

anti-psychotics


thorazine- schizo patients- presented with motor impairment

acetylcholine antagonist

curare

GABA agonist

benzodiazapines


xanax, valum


calm down, anti anxiety

left brain

speaking, reading

right brain

faces

brainstem

oldest part of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells and enters the skull

brainstem is responsible for

automatic survival functions like b.p. and respiratin

medulla

base of brainstem

medulla controls

heartbeat and breathing

thalamus

brains sensory switchboard located on top of brainstem

thalamus sends messages to

sensory areas in the cortex

cerebellum

rear of the brainstem

cerebellum helps

coordinate voluntary movements and balance

damage to cerebellum results in

problem with balance and voluntary movement

the limbic system

boarder between higher and lower brain areas

limbic system associated with

emotion like fear, aggression, drives for food and sex

amygdala

consists of 2 lima bean structures linked to emotions of fear and danger

hypothalamus

below thalamus



hypothalamus associated with

eating, drinking, sexual activity, body temp, regulates pituitary gland

hippocampus associated with

memory storage

h.m. removed hippocampus

couldn't form new memories

cerebral cortex

divided two halves

cerebral cortex is connected by

corpus callosum and most advanced in mammals

occipital lobe

back of the head


primary visual cortex, visual input

parietal lobe

on top of head


primary somatosensory cortex

parietal lobe is target for

touch, info from joints/ muscles


topographic map of body


the more sensitive body part, the larger the area

agraphia

difficulty with writing

acalculia

difficulty with math

agnosia

inability to percieve object

temporal lobe

located near temples


language

frontal lobe

primary motor cortex, fine motor movement, thinking, and planning

concussions

like a fire storm in the brain


"to shake violently"


neurons stretch


chemicals leak

symptoms of concussions

headaches


nausea


fatigue


irritability


depression


fogginess

contusion

can see in brain image


bruise or bleeding

second impact syndrome

getting a second concussion after already having one

senses

olfaction


tactile


vision


audition


gustation


kinethestic


vestibular

absolute threshold

smallest amount of stimulation that can be detected

difference threshold

JND


smallest amount of change in a stimulus that can be detected

supra threshold

no question that you can detect it

having low threshold

very sensituve

a single candle flame from

30 miles away

we have depth perception because

our eyes ar placed in front

cornea

clear front of your eye

sclera

white part of your eye- gives eye its shape

pupil

hole in your eye. job is to let light in


constricts or dialates

iris

colored muscle that controls pupil

lens

brings things into focus. known as accommodation

near object lens

bends

far objects lens

flattens


cilliary muscles

muscles that control the bending of the lense

mono vision

one eye seeing distance and the other seeing up close

presbypoia

old age vision lens doesn't bend like it used to

cataracts

a clouding of the lens


rekated to aging

aqueous humor

watery fluid towards front of the eye. helps keep pressure

glaucoma

sneak their of vision blockage of the aqueous humor resulting in accumulation of fluid


increasing pressure causes damage to optic nerve and eventual blindness if not treated

vitreous humor

fluid in back of the eye

floaters

spots that appear in result of debris in back of eye

refraction

necessary to focus light ray accomplished by the lens

emmotropia

normal vision

myopia

nearsightedness

hyperopia

farsightedness

astigmitism

unequal curving of cornea. slightly out of focus. blurry vision. takes away sharpness

retinas signifigance

lines inside back of eye


contains photoreceptors


rods and cones

bipolar

receive message from rods and cones and send t next layer

ganglion cells

specialized cells, one responsibility is recoding colorin opponet process manor

macula or fovea

dead center back of eye

rods

found in periphery


lower threshold for activation


work in the dark


lower acuity


don't process color

cones

in fovea


higher threshold for activation


higher acuity


process color


r, c, b, receptors

darkness adaption curve

when we go from light to dark, we can't see because cones are working


after about 8 min rods start working

rhodopsin

generated in dark


allows rods to function