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119 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Psychology is




1.The study of the mind




2.The science of behavior and mental processes




3.The treatment of mental disorders

The science of behavior and mental processes

Most important to your survival




1. interpersonal relationships




2. physical ability




3. intelligence

interpersonal relationships

The course syllabus




1. Is a contract




2. Is recommended but not requires




3. Can be changed

Is a contract

To study effectively




1. Use self-hypnosis




2. Underline or highlight important material




3. Take notes as you go

Take notes as you go

Atoms, cells, organs, individuals, groups, worlds




1. Unrelated concepts




2. Levels & Systems




3. Not a part of Psychology

Levels and systems

The electrical activity of a single neuron




1. Comes from chemical processes on cell membrane




2. Comes from electricity stored deep within the cell




3. Remains scientific mystery

Comes from chemical processes on cell membrane

One electron communicates to another




1. Via electron flow




2. By arcing the electricity over the synapse




3. Via chemicals

Via chemicals

Sport and games




1. Are seen only among industrialized societies




2. Are part of the hunter-gatherer life




3. Are found only where people have established permanent settlements

Are part of the hunter gatherer life

Short-term memory




1. Hippocampus




2. Brainstem




3. Cortex

Hippocampus

Basic life functions




1. Hippocampus




2. Amygdala




3. Brainstem

Brainstem

Emotion




1. Hippocampus




2. Amygdala




3. Brainstem

Amygdala

Visible light, infrared, and ultraviolet




1. Are all manifestations of electromagnetic energy




2. Are fundamentally different kinds of energy




3. Differ mainly in amplitude

Are all manifestations of electromagnetic energy

We perceive




1. Everything that is real




2. Only a small part of reality




3. More than any living organism

Only a small part of reality

Which is true?




1. We create our perceptions




2. Perceptions cannot really be altered




3. Reality determines our perceptions

We create our perceptions

Which is true?




1. Perceptions are a fixed product of the nervous system




2. Perceptions are a direct reflection of external reality




3. Perceptions can even be altered by act of will

Perceptions can even be altered by act of will

Most important division of the cortex




1. Left/right




2. Front/back




3. Spinal cord/brainstem

Front/back

Which is true?




1. The frontal lobes can influence the limbic system and brainstem but not vice versa.




2. The limbic system and brainstem can influence the frontal lobes but not vice versa




3. The limbic system, brainstem, and cortex influence each other

The limbic system, brainstem, and cortex influence each other

The most basic communication




1. Chemical




2. Visual




3. Verbal

Chemical

Which is the correct order for the levels & channels of communication




1. Pheromone, taste, smell, touch, distance, body, face, eyes




2. Eyes, face, taste, smell, touch, distance, body, pheromone




3. Pheromone, touch, smell, taste, eyes, face, body, distance

Pheromone, touch, smell, taste, eyes, face, body, distance

Hypnosis is




1. A mysterious process that continues to baffle science




2. Social influence, personality, communication, perception




3. Deliberate faking

Social influence, personality, communication, perception

A cognitive explanation for why a depressed mother killed her children would focus on _____




1. Exploring the presence of mood disorders in her siblings




2. Examining her belief that her life was miserable




3. Uncovering her earlier episodes of postpartum depression




4. Investigating the lack of social support she received to deal with her stressed life

Examining her belief that her life was miserable

Dr. Matthews is observing children on the playground recording instances of aggression. This BEST illustrates which research method?




1. Case Study




2. Experimentation




3. Participant Observation




4. Naturalistic Observation

Naturalistic Observation

Which selection procedure(s) would be most likely to yield a random sample of voters' opinion toward capital punishment in the state of Texas?

Randomly selecting voters from the complete list of all registered voters

Which research technique would be MOST well suited to examining whether the number of hours spent watching TV predicts hours spent exercising?

Correlational study

Which correlation coefficient represents the variables with the weakest degree of relationship?

+.01

Experiments involve the manipulation of _______ and the measurement of ___________

independent variables; dependent variables

______ receive information from nearby neurons and then electrical impulses travel down ______ en route to other neurons

Dendrites; axons

We are able to interpret varying intensities of stimuli (e.g. a pat versus a slap) because

Neurons send messages more frequently when we receive a more intense stimuli

White matter in the brain is composed of ________.

unmyelinated axons

The amount of space for body parts in the motor cortex is allocated according to ______, and the amount of space for body parts in the somatosensory cortex is allocated according to ______.

the precision and complexity of the movement of the body part; the sensitivity to touch of the body part

A doctor has suggested that Dwayne should undergo a sleep study to determine why he is having difficulty sleeping. When Dwayne arrives at the study, the doctors us a(n) ______ to measure his brain waves as he sleeps.

EEG

Which of the following has/have been asserted as resulting from sleep deprivation?

All of these

Which statement about psychophysics is FALSE?

Psychologists were the first people to become involved in the study of psychophysics.

When researchers use the term subliminal stimuli, they are referring to stimuli that are ______.

below threshold and detected up to 49 percent of the time

In farsightedness, light waves from nearby objects come into focus ______ the retina, resulting in an inability to see clearly objects that are ______.

behind; near

_______ is (are) to vision as _____ is (are) to audition.

Retina; basilar membrane

When we interpret an ambiguous in terms of our past experiences, _____ occur(s).

Both perceptual set and top-down processing

Although the retinal image changes, we easily recognize the rectangular shape of a door whether it is closed, partially open, or completely open. This is an example of ______.

Perceptual constancy

Trichromatic theory explains how color is processed by _____, and opponent-process theory explains how color is processed by _____.

cones; post-receptor cells

Which is the most drastically different from culture to culture?

The relationship between father and son/daughter

Group Process

In/out, up/down, near/far, right/wrong

Human beings

have always lived in groups

Human beings live in groups

For protection, food finding, and childrearing

The group process model described in lecture

Happens in every group everywhere

Taming Little Beasties

Choices and consequences

The techniques of Cesar Milan 'The Dog Whisperer'

Communication, group process, individual behavior management

Communication channel least used by Cesar Milan

Verbal

Those who committed suicide at Heaven's Gate and Jonestown did so

Group process gone awry

Our beliefs

Are largely determined by the groups we join and our place within them

Heavy elements such as gold

Come from exploding supernovae

Psychopath, Sociopath, Character Disorder, Moral Insanity

Antisocial Personality Disorder

Characterized by extreme and maladaptive variant form of normal behavior

Personality Disorder

In Stanley Milgram's study, what proportion of individuals was willing to execute a stranger upon orders from an authority figure?

2 in 3

How long did it take Jane Elliott to inoculate blue-eye/brown-eye prejudice in 3rd graders?

15 minutes

If your group is doing something you believe is morally wrong

There are alternatives that might work

Humans first had year-round settlements

About 10,000 years ago

Domestication of plants and animals is most easily transmitted

East to west and west to east

In the eyes of an employer

Some college is no college

If you have a Bachelor's degree

You can go on to get an advanced degree in any field

In most cases, to optimally achieve classical conditioning, the conditioned stimulus (CS) must be presented _____ second(s) before the unconditioned stimulus (UCS)

1/2 to 1

Mary Cover Jones is known for which of the following?

Deconditioning a fear of rabbits in a 3-year-old boy

Which is the best example of positive punishment?

Spanking a child for not obeying rules results in decreases in disobedience

Which of the following is NOT a secondary reinforcer?

food

In a cumulative record, when no responses occur, the line has a _____ slope, and when the response rate increases, the line has a _____ slope.

flat; steeper

It is easier for humans to develop a fear of snakes than to develop a fear of flowers, which BEST illustrates ______.

biological preparedness

In the memory span task, participants _______.

are presented with a series of items one at a time and then asked to recall the items in the order in which they were presented.

"Memory span" refers to which of the following?

the average number of items a person recalls across multiple trials.

When it pertains to memory processes, the term "chunk" means _______.

a meaningful unit in memory

One explanation for infantile/child amnesia is that ______ is (are) not fully developed.

the hippocampus

Craik and Tulvik found that recognition was best in the _______ processing condition and worst in the _______ processing condition.

semantic; physical

A group of research participants studies Spanish, then French, and is then tested on their knowledge of the Spanish they studied. This research is designed to examine the effects of ______.

Retroactive interference

After solving a series of mathematical problems using a complicated formula, Mark uses the same formula to solve another problem he could have solved using a much simpler formula. Mark's continued reliance on the complicated formula BEST illustrates which of the following?

metal set

Which of the following contributes to both the gambler's fallacy and the conduction fallacy?

the representativeness heuristic

Most people incorrectly think that "r" appears more often as the first letter of a word than as the third letter. This belief stems from the use of the _______ heuristic, bases on the way we _______.

availability; organize words in memory

Which term does not belong with the others?

Predictive

Which of the following is not one of Thurstone's seven primary mental abilities?

musical ability

The finding that average intelligence scores have increased over the past century in the United States and other industrialized countries illustrates which of the following?

the Flynn effect

According to James Flynn, which of the following has likely contributed to the increase in intelligence test scores that has occurred over the past century?

societal changes, which led people to get smarter in abstract, scientific thinking

The tendency to seek evidence that supports our hypotheses is known as ______.

the confirmation bias

Compared to asexual reproduction, sexual reproduction

increases healthy variations

Women are elephants, men are

Frogs and/or elephants

The first living cells were essentially

Bubbles

Which is #1 for both men and women in seeking a mate

Physical attractiveness

Men have ______ stages of sexual responding and women have _______ stages

Four, four

Moder treatment of sexual dysfunction

Education and communication training

Default mode for mammalian brain is

Female

Whether someone grows up to want to have sex with men or women

is determined by prenatal exposure to testosterone

Homosexual behavior

Is a part of masculinity in some cultures

After we are born, culture tells us

What it is to be a male or a female

Boys mostly play with boys and girls mostly play with girls

In all cultures

Standards for male and female beauty

A mix of genetic and cultural features

What is the difference between legal drugs and illegal drugs?

drugs are the drugs of the ruling class

What is a "drug"?

Any substance that alters body function

Who uses drugs?

All people use drugs

People with Schizophrenia have

One personality

Most mental disorders are

Mild to moderate

The difference between Shaman and Psychiatrist

The Psychiatrist has both a spiritual and a scientific belief system

Without professional treatment, most mental disorders

Will probably improve

Which is NOT a risk factor known to be associated with prematurity?

blindness and deafness

When 18-month-old Logan sees his Uncle Brandon, he calls him "dada" along with any other man he sees. This BEST illustrates which of the following

overextension

Kerry says, "doggy doggy" whenever she sees the family dog, Brutus. However, she is puzzled when encountering the babysitter's dog and doesn't also call him "doggy". This BEST illustrates which of the following?

underextension

In the strange situation, an infant who acts disoriented, seems overwhelmed by the situation, and does not demonstrate a consistent way of coping with the strange situation, would MOST likely be classified as exhibiting a(n) ______ attachment style.

insecure-disorganized

A secure attachment relationship is MOST likely to develop between an infant and a primary caregiver when _______.

the infant's temperament matches the caregiver's childrearing expectations

Which theoretical approach to personality does NOT focus on problems in personality development?

Trait

When Trey's parents take away his allowance for violating curfew, Trey yells at his younger brother for simply entering Trey's room. Trey's behavior MOST closely resembles which defense mechanism?

Displacement

Which is a contribution to the study of human behavior?

All the answers are correct

According to Adler, people with unloving parents may develop a(n) ______.

inferiority complex

Like Adler, Horney emphasized the importance of ______ in the development of personality; but unlike Adler, Horney also emphasized the importance of _______ as a source of personality.

social experiences; insecurity

In considering social influence, which term does NOT belong?

personality

A saleswoman displays a set of pots and pans and asks a shopper, "What do you think this wonderful set of cookware is worth?" Before the shopper can answer, the saleswoman adds a set of cooking utensils, and mentions a single selling price for the combination of pots, pans, and utensils. The shopper agrees to purchase the set. It appears that the saleswoman has effectively used which of the following?

the that's-not-all technique

Compared to Milgram's baseline condition, which increased the percentage of participants who administered the maximum shock?

Taking direct responsibility for giving a shock away from the teacher

In Darley and Latané's experiment regarding adjustment difficulties experienced in college, when were participants MOST likely to seek help?

when they presumed they were the only ones present other than the victim.

Darley and Latané observed that most university students failed to help a fellow student experiencing an epileptic seizure when they thought there were four other students who also heard the seizure. The results of the experiment are BEST explained in terms of _______.

diffusion of responsibility

Meghan is afraid of snakes. Which instance would contribute to her fear being considered a specific phobia?

All of the answers are correct

Which has been considered the earliest biological treatment for mental disorder?

trephining

Benjamin Rush designed a treatment in which patients were restrained from activity and received little stimulation. This treatment involved which of the following?

a tranquilizing chair

______ is a naturally occurring element used to treat _______.

Lithium; bipolar disorder

Which is not a type of psychotherapy?

social

The answer is C

C