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61 Cards in this Set

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Why is the future so fascinating?

-holds seductive and positive possibilities (oooh la la)


-offers the chance to change things

Talk about Ellen Goodman's research about students' perceptions of time and timing

-we tend to make commitments NOW with the absolute and inaccurate certainty that we will have more time THEN




-students surveyed said repeatedly they'd have more free time on the same day of the next week or the next month than they had today


-ask them to add a commitment today, they'd answer no. But ask them to do it in the FUTURE and they are more likely to say YES.

What is "Irrational exuberance" as defined by Ellen Goodman?

-even those on overload today would take a fresh load in the future.




-Henry David Thoreau: "it is not enough to be busy, so are the ants. The question is what are we busy about?"

What are the three major, future-oriented temporal perspectives in positive psychology?

1. Self-efficacy


2. Optimism


3. Hope




-discuss potential balance among temporal orientations aimed as past, present, and future



Discuss Albert Bandura's viewpoint on self-efficacy

-Belief that you can accomplish goals (the idea that you can accomplish what you want)


-based on a sense of personal control (others who have focused on this viewpoint: John Locke, David Hume, William James, Gilbert Ryle)


-all about specific behaviour


-"Self-Efficacy: Toward a Unifying Theory of Behaviour Change"







How does Bandura define self-efficacy?

Definition: peoples' beliefs in their capabilities to produce desired effects by their own action




Maddux = "what I can believe I can do with my skills under certain conditions"



Differentiate between Outcome vs. Efficacy expectancies. Which does Bandura view as more important?

Based on outcome expectancies (what needs to be done in order to reach a desired goal)




Efficacy expectancies: person analyzes capability to complete necessary actions




-for Bandura: outcome expectancies viewed as far less important than efficacy expectancies




-situation-specific self-efficacy thoughts - proposed to be the last and most crucial cognitive step before people launch goal-directed actions

How does the stress appraisal model relate to Bandura's views of self-efficacy?

-remember the stress appraisal model! (stress has to be appraised and if it's a threat- we look at our self-efficacy: do I have the functional control and history to manage this stressor?)

Where does self-efficacy come from?

-learned human pattern of thinking rather than a genetically endowed one


-begins in infancy; continues throughout the life span


-based on premises of social cognitive theory: humans actively shape their lives rather than passively reacting to environmental forces

What are the 3 ideas of social cognitive theory?

1. Humans have powerful symbolizing capacities (for cognitively creating models of their experiences)




2. Self-observation & Self-regulation (become skilled at self-regulating actions as you navigate ongoing environmental effects -> back and forth interchange of environmental and thinking forces)




3. Personality as a result of reciprocal interactions (thoughts -> environment -> thoughts)

List the 5 developmental antecedents proposed by Bandura

1. Previous Similar Successes (how well one has done in earlier circumstances)




2. Modeling (watching other people who have succeeded in a given arena and copying their actions)




3. Imagery/Visualization (visualizing acting effectively to secure a wanted goal)




4. Verbal Persuasion (being influenced by a helper's words to behave in a given manner)




5. Arousal & Emotion (when physiologically aroused and experiencing negative emotions, our self-efficacy may be undermined. But when such arousal paired with positive emotions- heightens sense of self-efficacy)

Discuss the neurobiological aspects of self-efficacy

-role of frontal & prefrontal lobes


-role of right & left hemispheres




-Self-efficacy yields sense of control = production of neuroendocrines and catecholomines (neurotransmitters that govern automatic activities related to stress)




-experiments on animals reveal that self-efficacy or perceived control can be traced to underlying biological variables that facilitate COPING

List some situation specific self-efficacy measures

-Career Self-Efficacy Scale


-Occupational Questionnaire


-Career Counseling Self-Efficacy Scale


-Coping Self-Efficacy Scale


-Cultural Self-Efficacy Scale


-Memory Self-Efficacy Scale

What does Bandura think self-efficacy should reflect?

-self-efficacy should reflect beliefs about using abilities and skills to reach given goals in specific circumstances or domains




-Career self-efficacy indices (Occupational Questionnaire; Career Counselling Self-Efficacy Scale)


-Feelings of efficacy in other types of situations (hurricane coping self-efficacy questionnaire; cultural self-efficacy scale for adolescents)


-Assessing self-efficacy during specific life transitions: "childbirth self-efficacy scale", "memory self-efficacy scale"

How did Bandura feel about the trait perspective?

Trait perspective: in which psychological phenomena are viewed as enduring over time and circumstances


-Bandura argued AGAINST the trait perspective




-researchers have developed such dispositional measures of self-efficacy

Explain the Self-Efficacy Scale

-23 items


-respondents rate their agreement on a 14 pt Likert scale (1=strongly disagree to 14 = strongly agree)


-Factor analyses have revealed one factor reflecting "general self-efficacy" and another tapping "social self-efficacy"




-8-item New General Self-Efficacy Scale

How did Bandura feel about the cross-situational perspective of the self-efficacy scale?

-he has contrary views!


-instead, he suggests that any measurement of the individual's sense of personal efficacy should be carefully tied to a given performance situation




-it is when using such situation-specific measures that higher self-efficacy robustly and consistently has predicted... (see next slide)

List some things that higher self-efficacy predicts

-lower anxiety


-higher pain tolerance


-better academic performance


-more political participation


-effective dental practices


-continuation in smoking cessation


-adoption of diet and exercise regimes




-if you believe you can accomplish the behaviours all of the sudden you DO!

What is high self-efficacy in psychological adjustment related to?

-successful coping


-overcoming eating disorders and abuse


-life satisfaction




-Bandura posed that self-efficacy can play a protective role in dealing with psychological problems


-emphasized enablement factors that help people "to select and structure their environments in ways that set a successful course"


-taps positive psychology emphasis on enhancing strengths instead of lessening weaknesses

What is high self-efficacy in physical health related to?

1. Elevated self-efficacy increases health-related behaviours and decreases unhealthy ones. Also helps to MAINTAIN these changes.


-protection motivation theory


-reasoned action behaviour theroy


-health belief model




2. Self-efficacy has an impact on various biological processes that relate to better physical health


-increased health-related behaviours


-decreased unhealthy behaviours


-increased immune functioning


-increased catecholemines


-increased pain endorphins

What is high self-efficacy in psychotherapy related to?

-Self-Efficacy as a common factor in therapy


-Build self-efficacy in therapy via the 5 developmental antecedents


-also shows how to apply such thinking across situations that the client may encounter




May use one or more of the following 5 strategies:




1.Building success, often through the use of goal setting and theincremental meeting of these goals




2.Using models to teach the person to overcome difficulties




3.Allowing the person to imagine him or herself behaving effectively




4.Using verbal persuasion by a trustworthy psychotherapist




5.Teaching technique for lowering arousal(meditation,mindfulness,biofeedback, hypnosis, relaxation, etc) to increase the likelihood ofmore adaptive, self-efficacious thinking

What is collective self-efficacy?

Maddux: "the extent to which we believe that we can work together effectively to accomplish our goals"


-no agreement how to measure


-plays role in classrooms and work

Can serial dramas grounded in Bandura's social learning theory lead people to make lifestyle changes and alter detrimental social practiceS?

-According to Bandura, yes


-TV and radio programs founded on social psychology - help ppl around world make positive changes in their lives


-modeling and enhancing ppl's sense of efficacy can help them improve their lives


-messages inspire action!

According to Bandura, the TV programs spark behavioral and social changes using which 4 guiding principles?

-Contrasting role models with positive and negative models exhibiting beneficial or detrimental lifestyles and transitional models CHANGING FROM detrimental to beneficial styles of behaviour




2. Vicarious motivators that show benefits of positive lifestyles and costs of detrimental ones




3. Attentional and emotional involvement within programs to sustain viewers' attention




4. Environmental supports with each program that contain epilogue providing contact info for relevant community services and support groups

What are two theories that have received the majority of attention in regard to the construct of optimism?

1. Learned optimism: Seligman and colleagues




2. View of optimism as advanced by Michael Scheir and Charles Carver.

What is the historical basis of learned optimism according to Seligman and colleagues

-based on learned helplessness and attributional style theories


-they reformulated the model of helplessness to incorporate the attributions that ppl make for the bad and good things that happen to them

What is the difference between optimists and pessimists?

-Optimist uses adaptive causal attributions to explain negative experiences or events: external, variable, and specific attributions for failure-like events




-Pessimists make internal, stable, and global attributions for failure

Explain Learned optimism theory viewed in terms of its past temporally oriented excusing qualities as compared to future temporally oriented optimism qualities

-Happy and engage in happy behaviour = attract happiness (optimism= link oneself -> future POSITIVE OUTCOME): they link themselves to positive ooutcomes in the future


-optimistic goal-directed cognitions are aimed at distancing the person from negative outcomes of high importance




-Sad and engage in sad behaviour = attract sadness (excusing -> distance oneself -> past NEGATIVE OUTCOME)


-they distance themselves from a negative outcome in the past

How does the optimist explain bad things? (3 points)

Optimist explains bad things in such a manner as...




1. EXTERNAL ATTRIBUTION: account for role of other people and environments in producing bad outcomes (vs. pessimistic internal attribution)




2. VARIABLE ATTRIBUTION: interpret bad events as not likely to happen again (vs. pessimistic stable attribution)




3. SPECIFIC ATTRIBUTION: to constrain the bad outcome to just one performance area and not others (vs. pessimistic global attribution)

What are childhood antecedents of learned optimism?

-partly genetic (twin studies)


-partly learned (environment)


-promoted via safe, coherent environments


-adaptive excusing modelled by parents (they make explanations for negative events that enable offspring to feel good about themselves, along with explanations for positive events that make them feel extra-good about themselves)

What are childhood antecedents of pessimism?

-Develops when modelled by parents


-Related to parental death or divorce, abuse, incest


-link to tv viewing

Describe the neurobiology of optimism and pessimism

Pessimism and depression related to:


-abnormal limbic system functioning


-dysfunctional operations of the lateral prefrontal cortex and paralimbic system


-deficiencies of neurotransmitters




Neurobiological markers linked to perceived control and pessimism-depression thoughts

List a few measures of learned optimism

-Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ)


-Children's Attributional Style Questionnaire (CASQ)


-Content Analysis of Verbal Explanation approach (CAVE) (approach for deriving ratings of optimism and pessimism from written or spoken words): advantage= allows unobtrusive means of rating person's explanatory style based on language usage -> can study in historical figures!! - and baseball teams

A learned optimistic rather than pessimistic explanatory style is associated with: (7 points)

1. Better academic performances


2. Superior athletic performances


3. More productive work records


4. Greater satisfaction in interpersonal relationships


5. More effective coping with life stressors


6. Less vulnerability to depression


7. Superior physical health

Explain the definition of optimism as expectancies of reaching a desired goal (Scheier and Carver)

-stable tendency to believe that good rather than bad things will happen


-valued goals produce an expectancy about attainment


-do not emphasize personal efficacy




-these generalized outcome expectancies may involve perception about being able to move toward desirable goals or move away from undesirable goals

What are the childhood antecedents of optimism?

-genetic basis


-learning component from early childhood experiences with parental figures (secure attachment)- (Erikson's theory of development)

List two tests that can be used to measure optimism

Life Orientation Test (LOT)


-includes positive and negative expectancies


-criticism: arose about its overlap with neuroticism




Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R)


-shorter, revised version of LOT


-eliminated items that caused the neuroticism overlap concerns


-optimism as measured by LOT-R has shown superior capabilities in predicting various outcome markers related to superior coping

How do optimists face stressors/problems?

-take a problem-solving approach


-more planful than pessimists


-tend to use approach-oriented coping strategies of positive reframing


-see best in situations


-appraise daily stresses in terms of potential growth and tension reduction more than pessimists


-when faced with truly uncontrollable circumstances: accept their plights


-knows when to give up and when to keep plugging (vs. pessimist: still pursues goal even when not smart to do so)

What is optimism related to? (7 pts)

-problem-solving


-planfulness


-approach-oriented coping


-positive reframing


-going to college


-good work performance


-coping with cancer

What is the Riskind approach?

-Cognitive techniques are used to challenge optimism-suppressing schemas as well as to enhance positive and optimistic thinking





Positive Visualization

-client rehearses seeing positive outcomes for problematic circumstances

Briefly describe the two versions of the Greek myth of Pandora's box

-story about the origin of hope




VERSION 1: hope was but a cruel hoax (in the box -> out spewed all manner of troubles into world, except hope (remained in chest not to help humankind but taunt it with message that hope does not really exist




VERSION 2: hope was not a hoax, but a blessing and source of comfort for misfortunes - serve as antidote to the evils

Discuss HOPE

-C.R. Snyder


-emphasizes cognitions built on goal-directed thought




-pathways thinking: perceived capacity to find routes to desired goals




-agency thinking: the requisite motivations to use those routes




Only those goals with considerable value to the individual are considered applicable to hope.

What are the goals in hope theory? (6 pts)

-must be important to the person




-can vary temporally (short-term vs. long-term)




-may be approach oriented (aimed at reaching a desired goal)




-may be preventative (aimed at stopping an undesired event)




-varying degrees of difficulty of attainment

High vs. Low Hopers

High hopers: positive emotional sets and sense of zest (stems from their histories of success in goal pursuits)




Low hopers: negative emotional sets and sense of emotional flatness that stems from their histories of having failed in goal pursuits

What are the childhood antecedents of hope?

-no hereditary component


-entirely learned


-inherent part of parenting; strong attachment crucial for high hope


-components in place by age 2


-childhood traumas lesson hope




(interrelated yet still highly distinct characteristics)!

What did Pickering and Gray contribute regarding goal-directed actions

BIS: Behavioural inhibition system


-thought to be responsive to punishment (signals organism to STOP)




BAS: Behavioural activation system


-governed by rewards and sends message to go forward




BFS: Behavioural facilitation system:


-drive incentive-seeking actions of organisms

What scales can be used to measure hope?

Adult Trait Hope Scale


-12-item trait measure for adults 16+


-4 items reflect pathways


-4 items reflect agency


-4 are distracters




Adult State Hope Scale


-6-item self-report scale that taps here-and-now goal-directed thinking


-3 items reflect pathways thinking


-3 reflect agency rating




Children's Hope Scale


-6-item self report trait measure for kids age 8-15


-3 items reflect agency thinking


-3 reflect pathways thinking


-6 pt Likert

What does hope predict?

-academic performance


-sport performance


-physical health


-adjustment


-psychotherapy outcomes

What is collective hope?

-the level of goal-directed thinking of a large group of people


-often seen when a goal can't be achieved by a single person

Explain Hope in terms of temporal orientations

Advantages and disadvantages of all 3 temporal domains: past, present, future




Past orientation: emphasis on pleasurable views of previous interpersonal relationships with friends and family




Present Orientation: can be described in hedonistic terms that have both good and bad consequences




Future Temporal Perspective: thinks ahead to possible consequences of their actions




Role of Cultural Perspectives

Explain Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory

-developed and validated a trait-like measure of temporal orientation


-can ascertain degree to which each of the 5 temporal orientations best characterizes you across situations




1. Past-negative


2. Past-positive


3. Present-fatalistic


4. Present-hedonistic


5. Future

What is the key to having a balance in the three temporal perspectives?

-your ability to operate in the temporal orientation that BEST FITS situation in which you find yourself


-be flexible and capable of switching to be most productive!

What are the diffs in how diff cultures emphasize temporal orientations?

WESTERN CULTURE: typically emphasize FUTURE ORIENTATION


-3 little pigs story




-perspectives may differ in implementation of self-efficacy, optimism and hope (diff values)




-American Indians = time seen as flowing and relative resources that is to be focused upon (things done as needed, not "by the clock")




Present orientation: Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican Americans




Polychromic manner (many things conceptualized as happening at once): Indians, Latinos/Latinas, African and Asian Americans




Monochromatic: European American culture (value placed on time - "time is money")!- time = linear, sequential, monochromic




Variation within cultures too - cannot assume that coping approaches are manifested in same degree across cultures

What are the results of studies of HOPE in diff cultures?

European Americans: LIFE SATISFACTION = strongest predictor of agentic thinking (but not in Asian Americans)




-Latinos: RATIONAL PROBLEM SOLVING strongest significant predictor of agentic thinking (not in European Americans though)




-Asian Americans = POSITIVE AFFECT was strongest predictor of agentic thinking (but not for Latinos or European Americans)




diffs also found b/w racial and ethnic groups in terms of mean overall hope, agency and pathways scores

Can cultural norms, expectations and stereotype threat influence the development of self efficacy?

-yep


-study found that masculinity predicted self-efficacy for technological pursuits regardless of biological sex




-self-efficacy in science appeared to stem from vicarious learning for female students but from mastery experiences for male students




US: students tended to report high self-efficacy even when they performed poorly, but the Japanese and Korean students tended to rate their abilities as low (low self efficacy) even when they performed well on the task

What is bicultural self-efficacy?

-one's belief about his abilities to succeed in a culture that differs somewhat from one's own home culture


-sense of assurance in one's own ability to participate and interact in a culture of origin and a second culture (language, social relations, ability to value things from both cultural frameworks)


-levels of bicultural self-efficacy may impact and individual's wilingness to engage within both cultures when obstacles occur

Cultural self-efficacy

-perception of one's own capability to mobilize motivation, cognitive resources and courses of action necessary in situations characterized by diversity


-all about one's comfort in navigating a situation in which various cultural groups are present

Little optimism vs. Big optimism

-little optimism: optimism about a specific situation


-big optimism: general dispositional optimism




Positive affect influences little optimism but doesn't affect big optimism





Comparative and Personal optimism

Comparative optimism: one's belief that the chances that good things will happen for him is greater for him than for others




Personal optimism: one's belief that good things will happen to him in general




-men scored higher than women on both comparative and personal optimism (also scored higher on measures of personal control - maybe means they feel they have more control over their future)

Unrealistic optimism

-optimism for a rosy outcome in the face of a not rosy reality


-neurologically: less activity noted in many brain regions in unrealistically optimistic individuals




-exp: when participants had overestimated their risk of getting diseases and then given the real prevalence, they were more likely to change their responses to favour a lower risk of getting it. But, when they underestimated their risk of getting diseases and then given the real prevalence they were NOT more likely to change their response in favour of the info they had gotten - they still kept their unrealistic optimism that they would be less likely to get the diseases