Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

first person to publish on the heritability of intelligence

intelligence is based on sensory abilities

Francis Galton

wrote about the components of intelligence

how intelligence should be organized

called for complex measurement of intelligence

Alfred Binet

said that intelligence is the individual's global capacity to act purposefully and think rationally with their environment

David Wechsler

Four factors of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale

1. verbal comprehension

2. working memory

3. perceptual organization

4. processing speed

focused on the development of cognition in children

evolving biological adaptation to the world around them

Jean Piaget


as cognitive skills are gained, adaptation increases

mental trial and error replaces physical trial and error


organized action or mental structure that, when applied to the world leads to knowing or understanding

ex: infant putting something in their mouth

adding a series of numbers

terms associated with Piaget






definition and example

organizing new information so that it fits in with what is already perceived or thought

ex: child sees a butterfly and calls it a bird


definition and example

changing what is already perceived or thought so that it fits with new information

ex: child refers to butterfly as bird, new concept of butterfly is introduced, and now refers to a butterfly as a butterfly


heredity and environment interact and influence the development of intelligence

factor-analytic theories of intelligence

identifying the abilities that make up intelligence

two-factory theory of intelligence

three-stratum theory of cognitive abilities

CHC model

information-processing theories of intelligence

identifying the specific mental processes that make up intelligence

two-factor theory of intelligence


measures of intelligence correlate with each other

existence of a general intellectual ability factor


general intelligence

portion of variance that all tests have in common


specific components


error components

if a test has high positive correlations with other tests of intelligence it is saturated with g, s, or e?


tests with low correlations with other intelligence tests are viewed as measures with g, s, or e?


best prediction of overall intelligence? g or s?


group factors

definition and examples

class of factors common to a group of activities but not all

not general, but not specific

linguistic, mechanical, arithmetical

Gardner's 7 intelligences

1. logical-mathematical

2. bodily-kinesthetic

3. linguistic

4. musical

5. spatial

6. interpersonal

7. intrapersonal

interpersonal intelligence

ability to understand other people

intrapersonal intelligence

ability to form an accurate model of oneself and to be able to use that model to operate effectively in life

emotional intelligence

empathy and self-understanding

ability to perceive, control, and evaluate emotions

stated that there are two types of intelligence- crystallized and fluid


crystallized intelligence

acquired skills and knowledge that are dependent on culture

ex: vocabulary

fluid intelligence

non-verbal and culture free

ex: memory

Horn added these 7 factors to Cattells theory of intelligence

1. visual processing

2. auditory processing

3. quantitative processing

4. speed of processing

5. reading and writing

6. short-term memory

7. long term storage and retrieval

vulnerable abilities

decline with age and tend not to return following a brain injury

maintained abilities

do not decline with age and may return following a brain injury

three-stratum theory of cogntive abilities

developed by Carroll

1st strata is g-general intelligence

2nd strata is composed of 8 abilities and processes

3rd stata is made up of the level or speed factors that are associated with the second strata

8 abilities and processes that are in the second strata of the 3-stratum theory of cognitive abilities

1. fluid intelligence

2. crystallized intelligence

3. general memory and learning

4. broad visual perception

5. broad auditory perception

6. broad retrieval capacity

7. broad cognitive speediness

8. processing/decision speed

3-stratum theory is what type of model?

hierarchal model

hierarchal model

all of the abilities listed in a stratum or incorporated with the strata above it

CHC model

influenced by Cattell, Horn, and Carroll's theories of intelligence

10 abilities

omits the general intellectual ability factor (lacks utility in psychoeducational evaluations)

10 broad-stratum abilities in the CHC model

1. fluid intelligence

2. crystallized intelligence

3. quantitative knowledge

4. reading and writing

5. short term memory

6. visual processing

7. auditory processing

8. long term storage and retrieval

9. processing speed

10. decision/reaction time or speed

simultaneous processing (aka parallel processing)

information is processed at the same time

ex: math reading, looking at a painting

successive processing (aka sequential processing)

each bit of information is individually processed in a sequence

ex: spelling, Law and Order

PASS mode of intellectual functioning





developed by Sternberg


strategy development for problem solving


receptivity to information

simultaneous and successive

how information is processed

successful intelligence

the extent to which one effectively adapts, shares, shapes and selects the environment to conform to personal and societal standards of success


all living organisms are preformed at birth and cannot improve upon


ones abilities are predetermined by genetic inheritance

no amount of learning can enhance intelligence

Lewis M Terman

concluded that people from Mexican and Native American cultures were genetically inferior

Jewish people were somewhat inferior


recent studies on IQ and genetics

twin studies: twins reared apart have similar IQs, not as similar as reared together

children born to poverty, but adopted into better educated/middle class families have higher IQ

mothers with higher IQs have children with high IQs regardless of socioeconomic status

level of parental education, rather than income predicted IQ

inheritance and interactionism

people inherit a certain intellectual potential, but how much is realized depends on the type of environment a person is nurtured in

Flynn effect

intelligence inflation

measured intelligence increases year by year


performance is consistently remarkable in any positively valued area

downside to giftedness: depression, isolation

personality and intelligence: what does it measure?


energy level



goal awareness

personality characteristics associated with increase of intelligence over time

agressiveness with peers


high need for achievement




emotional stability

personality characteristics not associated with increase of intelligence over time





childs observable actions and reactions

streetwise/street smarts

perceived ability to avoid violent confrontations and to be safe in one's neighborhood

gender and intelligence

males: g, visual spatialization

females: language related skills

significance of differences is still questionable

family environment and intelligence

safety and welfare are of importance

opportunity for learning and growth

presence of resources

parental language

parental concern about achievement

parental explanation of discipline

democratic home environment

culture and intelligence

cultures differ in what is valuable and what constitutes intelligence

promote different abilities and pursuits

culture and intelligence tests

intelligence tests reflect the culture of the society where the test is employed

members of subcultures may do poorly

culture-free intelligence test

controlling cultural factors and lessening differences between cultural groups

culture loading

the extent to which a test includes vocab and knowledge associated with a particular culture

culture-fair intelligence test

minimize the influence of culture through evaluation procedures: adminstration instruction, item content, responses required, interpretation of data