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63 Cards in this Set

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first person to publish on the heritability of intelligence



intelligence is based on sensory abilities

Francis Galton

wrote about the components of intelligence



how intelligence should be organized



called for complex measurement of intelligence

Alfred Binet

said that intelligence is the individual's global capacity to act purposefully and think rationally with their environment

David Wechsler

Four factors of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale

1. verbal comprehension


2. working memory


3. perceptual organization


4. processing speed

focused on the development of cognition in children



evolving biological adaptation to the world around them

Jean Piaget

adaptation

as cognitive skills are gained, adaptation increases



mental trial and error replaces physical trial and error



schema

organized action or mental structure that, when applied to the world leads to knowing or understanding



ex: infant putting something in their mouth


adding a series of numbers


terms associated with Piaget

adaptation


schema


assimilation


accomodation

assimilation



definition and example

organizing new information so that it fits in with what is already perceived or thought



ex: child sees a butterfly and calls it a bird

accomodation



definition and example

changing what is already perceived or thought so that it fits with new information



ex: child refers to butterfly as bird, new concept of butterfly is introduced, and now refers to a butterfly as a butterfly


interactionism

heredity and environment interact and influence the development of intelligence

factor-analytic theories of intelligence

identifying the abilities that make up intelligence



two-factory theory of intelligence


three-stratum theory of cognitive abilities


CHC model

information-processing theories of intelligence

identifying the specific mental processes that make up intelligence

two-factor theory of intelligence

Spearman



measures of intelligence correlate with each other



existence of a general intellectual ability factor

g

general intelligence



portion of variance that all tests have in common

s

specific components

e

error components

if a test has high positive correlations with other tests of intelligence it is saturated with g, s, or e?

g

tests with low correlations with other intelligence tests are viewed as measures with g, s, or e?

s

best prediction of overall intelligence? g or s?

g

group factors



definition and examples

class of factors common to a group of activities but not all



not general, but not specific



linguistic, mechanical, arithmetical

Gardner's 7 intelligences

1. logical-mathematical


2. bodily-kinesthetic


3. linguistic


4. musical


5. spatial


6. interpersonal


7. intrapersonal

interpersonal intelligence

ability to understand other people

intrapersonal intelligence

ability to form an accurate model of oneself and to be able to use that model to operate effectively in life


emotional intelligence

empathy and self-understanding



ability to perceive, control, and evaluate emotions

stated that there are two types of intelligence- crystallized and fluid

Cattell

crystallized intelligence

acquired skills and knowledge that are dependent on culture



ex: vocabulary

fluid intelligence

non-verbal and culture free



ex: memory

Horn added these 7 factors to Cattells theory of intelligence

1. visual processing


2. auditory processing


3. quantitative processing


4. speed of processing


5. reading and writing


6. short-term memory


7. long term storage and retrieval

vulnerable abilities

decline with age and tend not to return following a brain injury

maintained abilities

do not decline with age and may return following a brain injury

three-stratum theory of cogntive abilities

developed by Carroll



1st strata is g-general intelligence


2nd strata is composed of 8 abilities and processes


3rd stata is made up of the level or speed factors that are associated with the second strata

8 abilities and processes that are in the second strata of the 3-stratum theory of cognitive abilities

1. fluid intelligence


2. crystallized intelligence


3. general memory and learning


4. broad visual perception


5. broad auditory perception


6. broad retrieval capacity


7. broad cognitive speediness


8. processing/decision speed

3-stratum theory is what type of model?

hierarchal model

hierarchal model

all of the abilities listed in a stratum or incorporated with the strata above it

CHC model

influenced by Cattell, Horn, and Carroll's theories of intelligence



10 abilities



omits the general intellectual ability factor (lacks utility in psychoeducational evaluations)

10 broad-stratum abilities in the CHC model

1. fluid intelligence


2. crystallized intelligence


3. quantitative knowledge


4. reading and writing


5. short term memory


6. visual processing


7. auditory processing


8. long term storage and retrieval


9. processing speed


10. decision/reaction time or speed

simultaneous processing (aka parallel processing)

information is processed at the same time



ex: math reading, looking at a painting

successive processing (aka sequential processing)

each bit of information is individually processed in a sequence



ex: spelling, Law and Order

PASS mode of intellectual functioning

planning


attention


simultaneous


successive



developed by Sternberg

planning

strategy development for problem solving


attention

receptivity to information

simultaneous and successive

how information is processed

successful intelligence

the extent to which one effectively adapts, shares, shapes and selects the environment to conform to personal and societal standards of success

preformationism

all living organisms are preformed at birth and cannot improve upon

predeterminism

ones abilities are predetermined by genetic inheritance



no amount of learning can enhance intelligence

Lewis M Terman

concluded that people from Mexican and Native American cultures were genetically inferior



Jewish people were somewhat inferior



predeterminism

recent studies on IQ and genetics

twin studies: twins reared apart have similar IQs, not as similar as reared together



children born to poverty, but adopted into better educated/middle class families have higher IQ



mothers with higher IQs have children with high IQs regardless of socioeconomic status



level of parental education, rather than income predicted IQ

inheritance and interactionism

people inherit a certain intellectual potential, but how much is realized depends on the type of environment a person is nurtured in

Flynn effect

intelligence inflation



measured intelligence increases year by year

giftedness

performance is consistently remarkable in any positively valued area



downside to giftedness: depression, isolation

personality and intelligence: what does it measure?

drive


energy level


impulsiveness


persistence


goal awareness

personality characteristics associated with increase of intelligence over time

agressiveness with peers


initiative


high need for achievement


competitive


curiosity


self-confidence


emotional stability

personality characteristics not associated with increase of intelligence over time

passivity


dependence


maladjustment

temperment

childs observable actions and reactions

streetwise/street smarts

perceived ability to avoid violent confrontations and to be safe in one's neighborhood

gender and intelligence

males: g, visual spatialization



females: language related skills



significance of differences is still questionable

family environment and intelligence

safety and welfare are of importance


opportunity for learning and growth


presence of resources


parental language


parental concern about achievement


parental explanation of discipline


democratic home environment

culture and intelligence

cultures differ in what is valuable and what constitutes intelligence



promote different abilities and pursuits

culture and intelligence tests

intelligence tests reflect the culture of the society where the test is employed



members of subcultures may do poorly

culture-free intelligence test

controlling cultural factors and lessening differences between cultural groups

culture loading

the extent to which a test includes vocab and knowledge associated with a particular culture

culture-fair intelligence test

minimize the influence of culture through evaluation procedures: adminstration instruction, item content, responses required, interpretation of data