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88 Cards in this Set

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Fundamental Attribution Error

To attribute behaviour to internal causes and underestimate how powerful a situation is.

Construal

Interpretation of stimuli.

Schema

Knowledge structure consisting of an organized body of stored information.

Self-Other Knowledge Asymmetry Model

Compares how much we know about ourselves to what others know about us.

Meta-Accuracy

Awareness of POV of others.

Situationism

Subset of self-knowledge that is brought to mind in a particular context.

Self-Esteem

Overall positive or negative evaluation we have about ourselves. Social comparison, age, sex, and contingencies of self-worth all act as influences.

Sociometer Theory

Developed by Mark Leary, claims our self-esteem depends on our perception of our standing with others.

Self-Enhancement

Method of maintaining or increasing our positive views of self. Strategies include self-serving construals, self affirmation, and social comparison.

Self-Serving Construals

The ways of interpreting information to most benefit one's self-image.

Self-Affirmation

To remind yourself of your competence in one domain when struggling in another.

Upward Social Comparison

Comparing self to others who are doing better. This leads to flattering ourselves by association. To enhance self in this situation, you can sabotage others, distance yourself, or lessen the domain's relevance.

Self-Verification Theory

We want stable and accurate beliefs about ourselves, and want others to confirm our existing self-views. Strategies include selective attention, identity cues, and self-selection.

Self-Presentation

The idea that we present the person we would like others to believe we are in the given situation. You act differently at work than with your close friends.

Self-Monitoring

The tendency to monitor our behaviour to fit the demands of the situation. When the club isn't lit, you still act like you're having a good time to avoid being seen as the fun sponge.

Self-Handicapping

Engaging in self-defeating behaviour to protect the public self. This can protect against negative self-views, but becomes less effective each time you do it.

Self-Awareness

The degree to which a person is paying attention to his own thoughts, feelings, and behaviours.

Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

Expectations lead us to behave in ways that elicit the very behaviour.

Causal Attribution

Construal process people use to explain their own and others' behaviours.

Explanatory Style

Habitual way of explaining events. Three dimensions are internal/external, stable/unstable, and global/specific.

Covariation Principle

Behaviour should be attributed to potential causes that occur. Three types of covariation information are consistency, consensus, and distinctiveness.

Discounting Princple

We have reduced confidence about the cause of a behaviour when other plausible causes exist to produce the same behaviour. She might just be at the Kanye concert for her boyfriend.

Augmenting principle

We have increased confidence about the cause of a behaviour when other causes to produce the same behaviour do not exist (or are unlikely). She is wearing a Kanye shirt, she must be a fan.

Counterfactual Thinking

Thinking about the consequences of an event not occurring (What if I didn't come to McGIll? Would I hate life less?). This leads to amplified (good and bad) emotions - bronze medal winners think "what if I messed up?", while silver medal winners think "what if I had done better?".

Internal Validity

To have confidence that only the manipulated variable could produce the results from a study.

External Validity

To question how well the results of a study generalize to other contexts.

Availability Heuristic

Judging the frequency or probability of an event occurring by how easily we can think of supporting information and examples. We are more likely to die from hot water than a plane crash, but we fear planes because we can readily think of examples.

Representativeness Heuristic

To categorize something by judging how similar it is to our conception of the typical category member. If my usual experience of walking in the rain is negative, I will assume that won't change today.

Base Rate Neglect

Failure to use information regarding frequencies when making decisions.

Conjunction Fallacy

A combination of two occurrences is always less likely than just one.

Projected Illusions Hypothesis

Your partner's self-perception is increased as a result of you seeing her more positively than her previous self-perceptions.

Reflected Illusions Hypothesis

Increased self-perception as a result of your partner idealizing you.

Buffering Hypothesis

Illusions help us through the negative events in relationships.

Reflected Appraisal Hypothesis

Individuals come to see themselves through their partner's eyes.

Transformation Hypothesis

To link your partner's flaws with virtues.

Michelangelo Effect

A man's initial perception of a woman will predict changes in her self-perception. He "sculpts" her.

Marriage Shift

Developed by Swann, claims early in relationships we want to be seen positively. Later, we desire intimacy, which can only be possible if seen accurately.

Contamination Hypothesis

When experiencing self-doubts, low self-esteem individuals will assume their partner shares the same negative view of them. The individual then finds flaws in their partner to avoid rejection.

Compensation Hypothesis

People with high self-esteem compensate for self-doubts by using their relationship/partner as a resource.

Attachment Theory

- Secure, high self-esteem people trust, love, and expect to be loved.


- Anxious, insecure people desire love.


- Dismissive people expect rejection, become self-reliant.


- Fearful people are afraid of dependency, but lack self-reliance.

Dunbar Number

The number of friendships we can maintain.


500 acquaintances, 150 of which are friends, 50 of which would be invited to your party, 15 of which are "soul mates", and 5 of which are "ride or die" friends.

Social Exclusion Manipulation

Leads to enhanced recall of social information (Donna's Diary).

Social Isolation

Can occur when physically around people, is more about feeling alone than being alone. Consequences include mental health problems, criminal behaviour, and poor sleep quality.

The Four Horsemen

- Criticism (blame, insult, attack on character)


- Defensiveness (deflect blame, responsibility)


- Contempt (mockery, sarcasm)


- Stonewalling (looking away, disconnecting)

What three attributions do happy couples make when explaining positive events?

Stable, general, intentional.

What three attributions do happy couples make when explaining negative events?

Unstable, specific, unintentional.

What three attributions do unhappy couples make when explaining positive events?

Unstable, specific, unintentional.

What three attributions do unhappy couples make when explaining negative events?

Stable, general, intentional.

Attraction is based on...

Proximity, similarity, and physical attractiveness.

Mere Exposure Effect

You like things more as you are exposed to them.

Processing Fluency

Easier processed information is more subjectively pleasing. Familiarity enhances fluency, which means things that come up more frequently are generally better seen than rarer things (People like England a lot, are indifferent about Bulgaria).

Halo Effect

Belief that attractive people have other unrelated positive qualities.

Social Facilitation

Tendency to perform differently when in the presence of others.

Evaluation Apprehension Theory

We are concerned about looking bad in the eyes of others.

Social Loafing

To exert less effort for group work.

Deindividuation

Loss of individual identity in a large group. We feel less responsible for actions as we become less self-observant, less concerned with the evaluation of others, and our internal controls are weakened (Vancouver Riots).

Predictors of Leaders

Expertise, social skills, and sharing rewards.

Aggression

Any physical or verbal behaviour that is intended to harm another person. Dispositional causes (genes, life experiences), situational determinants (hot weather, rejection, media violence), and construal processes (anger, dehumanization) all influence aggression.

Dehumanization

Attribution of negative, nonhuman characteristics to people. Two types are to deny someone human nature, and to deny someone human uniqueness. Can trigger aggression, as it is easier to harm non-humans.

Catharsis

Release of strong emotion to purge yourself to he impulse to act inappropriately.

Psychological Stress

Sense that our challenges and demands surpass our current capacities and resources.

Social Psychological Stress

Triggers fight-or-flight response, increased cardiovascular activation, and suppressed immune system. Adaptive in short term (when you see a bear, you run on instinct).

True or False: consistent exposure to psychological stress can increase risk of disease and mortality.

True, immune system is suppressed when exposed to stress.

Telomeres

Caps on chromosomes that protect gene data. Shorten with age, length indicates aging-related diseases.

Rumination

Thinking of a stressful time and re-stressing yourself. Solutions include the "stop" strategy.

True or False: minorities often experience better health.

False. Prejudice and discrimination are uncontrollable and significant stressors that result in worse health for minorities.

Stress Buffering Hypothesis

Supportive relationships can help people deal with stress.

Tend-and-Befriend Hypothesis

Paying attention to the needs of others is a way of dealing with our own stress. Caring about other can release oxytocin, associated with love and trust.

Approach/Inhibition Theory

High power involves a lack of constraint and the freedom to act as you wish.

True or False: high power is associated with antisocial behaviour.

True. High power is associated with antisocial behaviour, violating politeness norms, and sexual disinhibition.

Social Influence

How people affect one another. Three types are conformity, compliance, and obedience.

Compliance

Responding favourably to an explicit request.

Obedience

Compliance to a demand from an authority figure.

Conformity

To change your behaviour or beliefs in response to pressure.

Adaptive Conformity

Reduces decision making, promotes smooth social interactions.

Automatic Mimcry

Reflex, makes the person we mimic like us more.

Informational Social Influnece

To rely on other people's comments and actions to indicate what is likely correct.

Normative Social Influence

Driven by the desire to avoid criticism and rejection.

What can affect the likelihood of conformity?

Group size, unanimity, anonymity, expertise, culture, and gender.

True or False: large groups increase conformity.

True, as there are more people to be rejected by (normative) and more views to discredit (informational).

True or False: you are more likely to withstand social influence with an ally or while doing so anonymously.

True. You don't fear being alone or rejected.

True or False: conformity is more likely when others have expertise or status.

True. We find it tough to discredit the view of a professional (informational), and we worry about being rejected by those of high status (normative).

True or False: cultures that value independence are more likely to conform.

False. Cultures that value interdependence are more likely to conform.

Altruism

Unselfish behaviour without regard for consequences to self. Motivations can be selfish (social reward, reduced personal distress), or unselfish (empathic concern).

Determinants of altruism include...

Social learning, situational influences, and culture.

Bystander Effect

We are less likely to help when others are around.

True or False: bystanders are less likely to help when a victim is screaming.

False. Bystanders help more often if victims are screaming, or don't imply a risk.

Pluralistic Ignorance

Assuming all is well because nobody acts.