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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The role of repressed childhood conflicts in personality disorders is most clearly emphasized by the ________ perspective.
Jaydon doesn't realize that his alcohol abuse and neglect of his family is leading to the destruction of both his family and career. A psychoanalyst would suggest that Jaydon shows signs of a
weak ego
Freud suggested that adults with a passive personality marked by a childlike dependency demonstrate signs of
an oral fixation

Freud indicated that defense mechanisms

reduce anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality

Bryce often acts so daring and overly confident that few people realize he is actually riddled with unconscious insecurity and self-doubt. Bryce best illustrates the use of a defense mechanism known as

reaction formation

Hermann Rorschach introduced what has become the most widely used ________ test.


Abraham Maslow suggested that individuals who are open, spontaneous, and not paralyzed by others' opinions illustrate


Humanistic psychology has been most closely associated with an emphasis on the importance of
a positive self-concept.
Critics have most frequently objected to the emphasis on individualism offered by the
psychodynamic perspective.
Which technique would psychologists use to assess whether a cluster of characteristics that includes ambition, determination, persistence, and self-reliance reflects a single personality trait?
factor analysis
A personality inventory that utilizes only those items that have been shown to differentiate particular groups of people is a(n) _________ test
empirically derived
One of the Big Five personality factors is
Which perspective most clearly emphasizes that the development of personality is partially learned through conditioning and imitating the behavior of others?
the social-cognitive perspective
Sarah's optimism is both a contributor to and a product of her successful career accomplishments. This best illustrates
reciprocal determinism.
When Vanessa noticed that she was wearing mismatched socks, she overestimated the extent to which others would also notice. Her reaction best illustrates
the spotlight effect.
Most college students perceive themselves as less likely than their average classmate to have a heart attack by age 40. This best illustrates
unrealistic optimism
People are likely to be less forgiving of others' misdeeds if they
are narcissistic
Although Alex has frequently been caught stealing money and other valuables from friends as well as strangers, he does not feel guilty or remorseful about robbing these people. According to Freud, Alex most clearly demonstrates
a weak superego.

According to psychoanalytic theory, boys' fear of castration is most closely associated with

the Oedipus complex.

Freud thought that the part of a dream we remember is a censored version of

unconscious wishes

Bonnie is afraid to express anger at her overbearing and irritating supervisor at work, so she is critical of her children instead. A psychoanalyst would suggest that Bonnie's reaction to her children illustrates


Alfred Adler, Karen Horney, and Carl Jung were


The Rorschach inkblot test has ________ reliability and ________ validity.

low; low

Children who have witnessed a parent's murder report memories that most clearly challenge Freud's concept of

According to Maslow, the desire for identity, meaning, and purpose beyond the self refers to the motive for


Who emphasized the importance of unconditional positive regard in healthy personality development?

Carl Rogers

The MMPI was originally developed to identify

emotional disorders.

Around the world, people describe others' personality traits in terms that are consistent with a set of factors called

big 5

The stability of personality during adulthood best illustrates the value of

trait theories

We can better predict drivers' behavior at traffic lights from knowing the color of the lights than from knowing the drivers' personalities. This best illustrates the importance of

situational influences.

The social-cognitive perspective highlights the interaction of personal traits with our environment, a process that Albert Bandura called

reciprocal determinism.

Jackson can see himself becoming just like his father – overweight, unhealthy, and depressed. To prevent that from happening, Jackson carefully monitors his food intake and engages in a regular program of exercise with a group of supportive friends. Jackson's healthy lifestyle best illustrates the motivational impact of
possible selves.
People with high self-esteem are less likely than those with low self-esteem to
give in to conformity pressures.
Efforts to boost someone's self-esteem with random expressions of praise in the absence of good performance is most likely to promote
Card players who attribute their wins to their own skill and their losses to bad luck best illustrate
self-serving bias.