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35 Cards in this Set

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Baker, McFall, & Shoham (2009)’s solutions for the current state of Clinical psychology
○ Move clinical training program towards medical training programs
○ New accreditation process that demands high quality science training as a central feature of doctoral training in clinical psychology
What are the lifetime prevalence rates of mental illness (across 17 countries)?
Mental illness is relatively common (12%-47.5%) across 17 countries
What percentage of individuals need psychological help in a given year?
Around 25%
What percentage of individuals needing treatment actually receive it?
32.9% (A vast majority of people needing treatment do not receive it)
One factor that led to the development of Community Psych?
Shift away from individual-focused practices in health care and psychology towards interest in public health, prevention, and social change
Factors contributing to development of Community Psychology
1.
2.
3.
4.
1. Social psychology’s interest in prejudice, poverty, and other social interests
2. Perceived need of larger-scale mental illness treatment for veterans
3. Questioning value of psychotherapy alone in treating large number of people with mental illness
4. Development of community mental health centers and deinstitutionalization
■ Able to maintain connection with families
First-order vs. Second-order change
Changing individuals in a setting to attempt
to fix a problems vs. attending to systems and
structures involved with the problems to
adjust the person-environment fit
Microsystems
Environments in which the individual is directly engaged with others (family members, fellow students, friends, business associates, etc.)
Organizations
Sets of larger microsystems (schools, religious organizations)
Localities
Multiple sets of organizations of microsystems (Community coalitions)
Macrosystems
Societies, cultures, government and economic institutions
Prevention and health promotion within Community psych
Preventing social, emotional and behavioral
problems and wellness and health
promotion at the individual and community
levels
(Services offered to the general population or to
individuals identified as at risk for a disorder to
reduce likelihood of a future disorder)
What does the ecological levels of analysis tell us about how the individual and society are related?
The individual and society are interdependent
Tertiary Prevention
■ Reduce the duration of mental illness
■ reduce the negative effects of mental disorders
■ reducing the effects rather than the rate
Secondary Prevention
■ Promote early identification of mental health problems
■ Prompt treatment of problems early on
■ Attack problems while still manageable
■ EX. Screening program for elementary children at risk for maladjustment
Primary Prevention
■ Counteract harmful circumstances BEFORE they have the chance to produce illness. EX prenatal care for disadvantaged women
Universal Prevention
● Address the entire population
● All individuals without screening are provided with information and skills necessary to prevent problems
○ Need low risk and inexpensive/useful
Selective Prevention
● Focuses on groups whose risk of developing problems is above average
● Subgroups may be distinguished by characteristics such as age, gender, family history, or economic status
Indicated Prevention
● Involves a screening process to identify individuals who exhibit signs of disorder or problematic behaviors
IOM Prevention Programs (Institute of Medicine)
■ Universal Prevention
■ Selective Prevention
■ Indicated Prevention
Social justice and diversity
■ Advocacy for equality and policies that allow for well-being of all
■ Respect for value and diversity
Empowerment
■ Increase empowerment of individuals and communities that have been marginalized.
● Involvement of individuals in process
Consultation
■ Work with other service providers (e.g. teachers, ministers, paraprofessionals) to ultimately reach more clients directly
Empirical grounding
Quantitative and qualitative research methods
Does consultation work?
Large effect on providers behavior, small effect on clients behavior
Effectiveness of community psychology-based interventions and prevention programs
○ Moderate to large effects
■ Headstart
○ Self-Help
■ AA, self-directed interventions
_______ psychology focuses on diversity, preventative care, empowerment, and competency over deficits
Health psychology
Roles of a clinical health psychologist
○ Dedicated to the promotion and maintenance of health, prevention of illness and identification of causes related to health, illness, and well-being
○ Focus on mind-body connection
○ Health psychologists can be involved in health care policy and the shaping of the public opinion with the regard to health
How stress can affect health
1.
2.
3.
1. Physiological stress response can be helpful
2. Severe and prolonged stress (over-activation of body’s response system) has adverse effect
3. Reduces immune system’s effectiveness (immunosuppression)
Transactional Model of Stress
Hostile people create stressful environments
● High levels of mistrust lead to more stressful environments
● Psychosocial vulnerability
Message framing and health behavior
Using sunscreen can help avoid skin cancer= more effective.
Not using sunscreen can lead to skin cancer= less effective
School and people
Micro
Government and economic systems
Macro
First-order: Change ___________
Change Individuals
Second-order: Change ___________
Change the system