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90 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the shaping process is especially useful in the areas of
education and child rearing
Skinner

primary reinforcers
are directly related to survival
Skinner

After learning to respond to a specific situation in a certain way, there is also a tendency to respond to similar situations in that same way. This is called
stimulous generalization
Skinner

After learning to respond to a specific situation in a certain way, there is also a tendency to respond to similar situations in that same way. This is called
tact
Skinner

With this type of reinforcement schedule, the organism is reinforced for a response made at the end of variable time intervals
variable interval
Skinner

When a certain response must be made in order to make a reinforcer available, the arrangement is called
contingent reinforcement
Skinner

What is necessary in order to modify behavior
behavior and reinforcer
Skinner

Skinner explained the themes that occurred in his life in terms of
environmental events
Skinner

The most important characteristic of operant behavior is that
it is under the control of its consequences
Skinner

Which of the following is a primary reinforcer:

a medal
money
praise
none of the above
none of the above
Skinner

The most important
"Pass the potatoes" is an example of a verbal response called a
mand
Skinner


This reinforcement schedule controls the behavior of gamblers and produces the highest rate of responding
variable ratio
Skinner

When a certain response must be made in order to make a reinforcer available, the arrangement is called
contingent reinforcement
Skinner

With the procedure called __________ a child is denied access to positive reinforcers for a certain period of time
time out from reinforcement
Skinner

Alex has decided to enter into an agreement with another person. Alex will pay that person $100 with the understanding that he (Alex) will get his money back, in $10 installments, as he loses a specified amount of weight each week. This is an example of
a contingency contract
Skinner


__________ founded the school of behaviorism
J.B. Watson
Skinner

The the behaviorist, learning principles are
the same for all living organisms
Skinner

Repeating something verbatim is termed
echoic behavior
Skinner


What are considered positive contributions made by Skinner's theory
it has widespread applied value

it provides a scientifically rigorous explanation of human behavior

it synthesizes and explains large amounts of information
Dollard & Miller

Hull called the association between a stimulus and a response a
habit
Dollard & Miller


According to Dollard and Miller, if parents totally inhibit a child's aggressiveness, the child
will not be able to compete successfully in modern society
Dollard & Miller

A __________ is a stimulus that indicates the appropriate direction that an activity should take
cue
Dollard & Miller

Generalization is the opposite of
discrimination
Dollard & Miller

What is true about a conditioned fear response
it is typically much more difficult to extinguish than other types of responses
Dollard & Miller

The condition that exists when a goal-response suffers interference is
frusteration
Dollard & Miller

When cue-producing responses are directed at the solution of a future problem the process is called
planning
Dollard & Miller


__________ is the learned response of not thinking thoughts that are unpleasant
repression
Dollard & Miller


What is considered a contribution made by Dollard and Miller's theory
it has clarified what factors contribute to successful psychotherapy
Dollard & Miller

Which of the following is a secondary drive:

the need to be attractive
hunger
sex
thirst
the need to be attractive
Dollard & Miller

Dollard and Miller attempted to synthesize the theories of
Hull and Freud
Dollard & Miller


According to Dollard and Miller, if toilet training is not handled properly by the parents, the child may develop feelings of
sinfullness
Dollard & Miller


Typically, the __________ conflict is the easiest one to resolve
approach-approach
Dollard & Miller

The __________ explains why if two or more routes to a goal are available, the shorter route tends to be preferred
gradient of reinforcement
Dollard & Miller

Which of the following is a secondary drive:

hunger
thirst
sex
fear
fear
Dollard & Miller

If an organism cannot respond to a desired stimulus, and if no conflict is involved, it will respond to a stimulus which is
similar to the desired stimulus
Dollard & Miller


If S1 tends to elicit R1, stimuli similar to S1 will also tend to elicit R1. This is referred to as
stimulus generalization
Dollard & Miller

Miller found that an animal could learn to fear something that was not previously feared. He called this learned fear a(n)
conditioned fear reaction
Dollard & Miller

If a need cannot be satisfied directly it may be satisfied indirectly. This exemplifies
displacement
Dollard & Miller

Pavlov called the conditioned responses that we develop to symbols, such as when we hear words like "fire" or "enemy
the second signal system
Dollard & Miller


A major assumption that Dollard and Miller make about neurosis is that
it can be unlearned
Dollard & Miller



Dollard and Miller have been criticized for
being simplistic in their analysis of human behavior

generalizing principles from the nonhuman to the human level

failing to adequately synthesize Freudian and Hullian theory
Dollard & Miller

For Dollard and Miller, reinforcement is equated with
drive reduction
Dollard & Miller

According to Dollard and Miller, there are probably more taboos in our culture related to __________ than there are for any other type of activity:
sex
Dollard & Miller


What is true about an approach-avoidance conflict
the strength of the approach tendency increases as the goal is approached

the strength of the avoidance tendency increases as the goal is approached

the avoidance tendency is stronger nearer the goal than the approach tendency
Dollard & Miller


Which of the following statements best describes the learning dilemma
no failure, no learning
Dollard & Miller


The frustration-aggression hypothesis states that
frustration leads to aggression
Dollard & Miller

Dollard and Miller call images, perceptions, and words
cue-producing responses
Dollard & Miller

A conscious and deliberate effort to stop an anxiety-provoking thought is called
supression
Dollard & Miller



According to Dollard and Miller, a stimulus capable of reducing a drive is the _________ and the actual drive reduction is the __________
reinforcer . . . reinforcement
Dollard & Miller

The __________ of a stimulus determines its drive properties, whereas its __________ determines its cue properties
strength . . . distinctiveness
Dollard & Miller

The statement, All learning depends on failure, describes the
learning dilemma
Bandura & Mischel

Social cognitive theory has been criticized for:
not being a unified theory
Bandura & Mischel

The statement, "I wonder if I am capable of doing what I think needs to be done," exemplifies
perceived self-efficacy
Bandura & Mischel

Mischel and his colleagues consistently found that the ability to delay gratification was related to the ability to
distract one's attention away from rewards
Bandura & Mischel


According to Bandura, what is true concerning chance encounters
they are fortuitous

they can have a major impact on one's life

they exemplify another way that the environment can influence behavior
Bandura & Mischel


What, according to Mischel, is at the heart of most antisocial and criminal behavior
the inability to delay gratification
Bandura & Mischel



Mischel believes that a high degree of behavioral consistency
may by maladaptive
Bandura & Mischel


Mischel believes that the concept of self-control should be defined as
the ability to tolerate a delay in gratification
Bandura & Mischel


Which of the following is not emphasized by social cognitive theory:

cognitive factors
extrinsic reinforcement
self-regulation of behavior
intrinsic reinforcement
extrinsic reinforcement
Bandura & Mischel



What is thought to be a contribution of social cognitive theory
its emphasis on research that employs human subjects
Bandura & Mischel


Within social cognitive theory, reinforcement (either direct or vicarious) is thought to provide
information concerning what behavior will be effective in a given situation

incentive for translating learning into performance
Bandura & Mischel

Bandura, Adams, and Beyer (1977) found that the most accurate predictor of a person's behavior is
a person's perceived self-efficacy
Bandura & Mischel

The ability to delay gratification increased with
age

intelligence

shorter intervals of delay
Bandura & Mischel


Dysfunctional expectancies are difficult to disconfirm because
the defensive behaviors based on them prevent the individual from having the experiences that will disconfirm them
Bandura & Mischel

According to Bandura, fortuitous experiences
provide another reason for the unpredictability of human behavior
Bandura & Mischel

A theorist who believes that both person and situation variables influence what a person does at any moment is a(n)
interactionist
Bandura & Mischel

Bandura is a
soft determinist
Bandura & Mischel


What does social cognitive theory emphasize
self-regulation of behavior
Bandura & Mischel

Social cognitive theory has been criticized for:
not predicting behavior any better than the theories that it criticizes

being too critical of psychoanalytic theory

employing mentalistic concepts in explaining behavior
Bandura & Mischel

Within social cognitive theory, reinforcement, either direct or vicarious, is thought to provide
information necessary for the development of effective behavior-outcome expectancies

an incentive for action

something of value to the person under existing circumstances
Bandura & Mischel



When individuals who opt for delayed gratification are shown models who choose immediate gratification, the individuals who originally opted for delayed gratification will tend to
choose immediate gratification
Bandura & Mischel

According to social cognitive theory, the best way to remedy dysfunctional expectancies is to provide
powerful disconfirming experiences
Bandura & Mischel

According to Mischel, which of the following theorists overemphasized situation variables
Skinner
Bandura & Mischel


Mischel's major criticism of traditional personality theories is that they emphasize __________ and deemphasize __________.
person variables . . . situation variables
Bandura & Mischel

The statement, If I see X, I can expect to see Y, exemplifies a
stimulus-outcome expectancy
Bandura & Mischel

According to the authors of your text, social cognitive theory is popular today because it
focuses its research on humans

recognizes the importance of language and symbols

is optimistic about the ability of humans to change throughout their lives
Bandura & Mischel

In Bandura's 1965 study utilizing a BoBo doll, it was found that children who saw a model being punished for aggression, later showed very little aggressive behavior. This exemplifies the influence of
vicarious punishment
Bandura & Mischel


According to social cognitive theory, most human behavior is
self-regulated
Bandura & Mischel

What Mischel and his colleagues find enhanced children's ability to delay gratification
placing rewards out of sight during the delay period

employing self-distraction strategies

thinking of desirable rewards in undesirable ways
Bandura & Mischel

Which of the following best describes Bandura's position on the mind-body relationship
he believes that the mind influences the body, and the body influences the mind
Buss


Evolutionary psychologists claim that there are certain universals, including behaviors such as
facial expressions

reciprocity in relationships

fear of snakes
Buss

Darwin defined fitness in terms of
the number of offspring
Buss

Women tend to prefer
men who have attained positions of status
Buss

Singh has found that across cultures, there appears to be an ideal
waist-to-hip ration for women
Buss

When a person uses a particular strategy to achieve a goal and another person prevents the successful enactment of that strategy, this is called
strategic interference
Buss


Buss argues that the blind irrationality of love leads to
commitment
Buss


Helping behavior that is extended to those to whom we are genetically related is called
kin selection
Buss

Wilson and Daly found that homicides are committed more often by individuals who are
young adults
Buss

Phobias involve
avoidance of the feared situation
Buss


Buss claims that evolutionary psychology links psychology with
the life sciences