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37 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Hermann von Helmoltz
established speed of nerve impulses
B.F. Skinner
did not believe in free will
Pierre Flourens & Paul Broca
connection between mind and brain
Wilhelm Wundt
made psych sep. science; analyzed consciousness; introspection
Plato
nativism
nativism
knowledge is inborn
aristotle
"tabula rasa"
"tabula rasa"
knowledge acquired through experience
Dorthea Dix
showed people mental illness wasnt all incurable; reformer for treatment of mentally ill
Descartes
mind and body are separate entities
Hobbes
mind and body arent different
structuralism
experience can be analyzed by breaking down basic elements of human experience; introspection
functionalism
why mind worked how it did; focus on process
phrenology
mental abillities, characteristics related to specific areas of brain
behaviorism (john watson)
all behaviors are acquired through conditioning
freud
focused on childhood experiences and impact on later life
humanistic psychology
emphasized positive potential of individuals; need to grow and strive to full potential; emphasizes free will
cognitive (Gestalt) psychology
whole is greater than its parts; perceive objects/events as a whole
Evolutionary Psychology
attempt to understand evolution, adaptive problems the mind solved in past
social psychology
studies causes and consequences of interpersonal behavior
Asch
mental chemistry and obedience
Allport
stereotyping, prejudice, and racism as perceptual errors
cultural psychology
how cultures rflect and shape the psychological processes of their members
absolutism
culture makes little diff. on psychology
relativism
psychological phenomena are likely to vary considerably across cultures
developmental psychology
effects of aging on behavior
scientific method
OPTIC: Observe, Predict, Test, Interpret, Communicate
Operational Definition
description of behavior/variable want to measure; clear observable terms
Validity
measures what we want to measure; conceptually related
reliability
trustworthiness; measure produces same measurement
Power
ability to detect specific features of the operational definition
behavioral measurements
systematic observations of one’s natural or contrived setting
naturalistic observations
done in real world; non-obtrusive; usually non-human subject; cant control variables
self-report measures
written or oral accounts of thoughts, feelings or actions
physiological measures
bodily responses; direct and sensitive to change
multiple measures
measure several aspects of a phenomenon; combines strengths of each and eliminates weaknesses of each
reliability (agreement)
smaller # / larger # *100 = % agreement