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132 Cards in this Set

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Who conducted the first psychology experiment?
Wilhelm Wundt.
He established. the first psychology lab at the Univ, of Leipzig, Germany.
When was the first psychology lab established/experiment conducted?
December 1879
What did Wundt study?
Two students measured the time lag between people hearing a bell hit a platform and their pressing a telegraph key. This was in an effort to measure "atoms of the mind".
What is structuralism?
The use of introspection to search for the mind's structural elements. Established by Wundt's student Edward Bradford Titchener.
Who introduced this school of thought of structuralism?
Edward Bradford Titchener (Wundt's student)
What is introspection?
Looking inward.
What were some of the problems when using introspection?
It required smart, verbal people, and its results varied from person to person and experience to experience. As introspection waned, so did structuralism.
What is functionalism?
It considered the evolved functions of our thoughts and feelings. Developed by William James, it assumed that thinking, like smelling, developed because it was adaptive - it contributed to our ancestors' survival.
Consciousness serves as a function. It enables us to consider our past, adjust to our present, and plan our future.
What is functionalism?
Philosopher-psychologist William James
What is behaviorism?
The view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes.
Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2).
What is Humanistic psychology?
A historically significant perspective that emphasized that growth potential of healthy people and the individual's potential for personal growth.
What is Cognitive neuroscience?
The inter-disciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language).
How do we define psychology?
The science of behavior and mental processes.
What is the nature-nurture issue?
The longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors.
Today's science see traits and behavior arising from the interaction of nature and nurture.
What is natural selection?
the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
What is the biopsychosocial approach?
An integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis.
PSYCHOLOGY'S CURRENT PERSPECTIVES

Neuroscience
FOCUS: How the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences.
SUBFIELDS: Biological; cognitive; clinical
PSYCHOLOGY'S CURRENT PERSPECTIVES

Evolutionary
How the natural selection of traits has promoted the survival of genes.
Biological; developmental; social
PSYCHOLOGY'S CURRENT PERSPECTIVES

Behavior Genetics
How our genes and our environment influence our individual differences.

(Nature vs. Nurture)
Personality; developmental
PSYCHOLOGY'S CURRENT PERSPECTIVES

Psychodynamic
How behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts
Clinical; counseling; personality
PSYCHOLOGY'S CURRENT PERSPECTIVES

Behavior
How we learn observable responses
Clinical; counseling; industrial-organizational
PSYCHOLOGY'S CURRENT PERSPECTIVES

Cognitive
How we encode, process, store, and retrieve information
Cognitive; clinical; counseling; industrial-organizational
PSYCHOLOGY'S CURRENT PERSPECTIVES

Social-cultural
How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures
Developmental; social; clinical; counseling
How can psychological phenomena be examined from different perspectives?
Think of how conditions such as Depression, Sex conditions, etc. are examined by these.
What is basic research?
Pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base.
What is Applied research?
Scientific study that aims to solve practical problems.
Be able to explain the difference a counseling psychologist, clinical psychologist and a psychiatrist.
Counseling Psychologist - Assists people with problems in living.

Clinical Psychologists - Studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders.

Psychiatry - A branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical treatmetns as well as psychological therapy.
Be familiar with the main interests of the different subfields of psychology: developmental, cognitive, social, personality psychology and industrial/organizational.
MAIN INTERESTS OF THE SUBFIELDS OF PSYCHOLOGY:
biological - Explores the links between the brain and the mind.
developmental - Study our changing abilities from womb to tomb.
cognitive - Experimenting with how we perceive, think, and solve problems.
social - Explore how we view and affect one another.
personality - Explores how we perceive, think, and solve problems.
industrial/organizational - use psychology's concepts and methods in the workplace to help organizations and companies select and train employees. boost morale and productivity, design products, and implement systems.
What is the SQ3R study method?
A study method incorporating five steps:
1. Survey
2. Question
3. Read
4. Retrieve
5. Review
What is the hindsight bias?
The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it.
How do people show overconfidence?
By overestimating, underestimating, acting as if they know the answer...when the answer is actually different.
What is critical thinking?
Thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.
What is a theory?
An explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events.
What is a hypothesis?
A testable prediction, often implied by a theory.
What is an operational definition?
A statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables.
For example, human intelligence may be operationally define as "what an intelligence test measures."
What is replication?
Repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants, in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances.
What is a case study?
An observation technique in which one person is studies in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.
What can be problems with the case study method?
1. Can be misleading
2. Anecdotes are not evidence.
3. Can lead to mistaken judgement and false conclusions.
What is naturalistic observation?
Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.
What is a survey?
A technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group.
What is a population?
All the cases in a group being studied, from which a sample can be drawn.
What is a random sample?
A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.
How does random sampling avoid sampling bias?
It allows you to avoid the influences of biased data introduced by providing equal opportunity for selection of all introduced data.
What is a correlation?
A measure if the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how week either factor predicts the other.
What is a correlational coefficient?
A statistical index of the relationship between two things (scored -1 to +1)
What is a scatterplot?
A graphed cluster of dots, each represents the values of two variables.
What does the slope of a scatterplot indicate?
The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables.
What does it mean if a correlation is positive?
The two variables have a perfect positive relationship.

As one data point increases in value, so does the second.
What does it mean if a correlation is negative?
The two variables have a perfect negative relationship.

As one data point increases in value, the second decreases in value.
What does the amount of scatter indicate?
The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation (little scatter indicates high correlation)
What does a perfect correlation (+ or -1) look like?
A perfect linear straight line with no scatter.
Does correlation means causation?

Explain why.
No. Correlation only shows relationship between two variables.

There may be other factors affecting the relationship that are not captured with the two variables.
What is an experiment?
A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable).

By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors.
What are the two key components of an experiment?
Experimental Group - Manipulating the factors of interest.

Control Group - Holding constant other factors.
What is random assignment?
Assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance.
Why is random assignment used?
To , minimize preexisting differences between those participants assigned to the different groups.
What is an experimental group?
In an experiment, the groups that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.
What is a control group?
In an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
What is an independent variable?
The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.
What is a dependent variable?
The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.
Given examples of an experiment you should be able to identify the independent and dependent variable and the experimental and control group.
See previous cards.
What is the placebo effect?
Experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent.
What is a double blind procedure?

Why is it used?
An experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or placebo. commonly used in drug-evaluation studies.

To increase/ensure the integrity of the experiment.
RESEARCH METHODS

Descriptive
Basic Purpose:
To observe and record behavior.

How Conducted
Do case studies, naturalistic observations, or surveys

What is Manipulated?
Nothing

Weaknesses:
No control variables; single cases may be misleading
RESEARCH METHODS

Correlational
Basic Purpose:
To detect naturally occurring relationships; to assess how well one variable predicts another.

How Conducted:
Collect data on two or more variables; no manipulation

What is Manipulated?
Nothing

Weaknesses:
Does not specify cause and effect.
RESEARCH METHODS

Experimental
Basic Purpose:
To explore cause and effect.

How Conducted:
Manipulate one of more factors; use random assignment

What is Manipulated?
The independent variable(s)

Weaknesses:
Sometimes not feasible; results may not generalize to other contexts; not ethical to manipulate certain variables.
What is the mode?
The most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution.
What is the mean?
The arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores.
What is the median?
The middle score on a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it.
What can happen to the mean when there are a few atypical scores?
These atypical scores (aka outliers) can influence the mean by skewing the mean value toward those outliers.
What is the range?
The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution.
What is the standard deviation?
A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score.
What is the normal curve?
A symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data; most scores fall near the mean (about 68 percent fall within one standard deviation of it) and fewer and fewer near the extremes.
What three things make it more likely we can infer that what we found in a sample is true in the population?
1. Representative samplesare better than biased samples.

2. Less-variable observations are more reliable than those that are more variable.

3. More cases are better than fewer.
What does it mean to say that something is statistically significant?
It means that he observed difference is probably not due to chance variation between the samples.
What four ethical principles are researchers urged to follow?
1. Obtain potential participant's informed consent.

2. Protect them from harm and discomfort.

3. Keep information about individual participants confidential.

4. Fully debrief people (explain research afterward).
What is informed consent?
An ethical principle that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate.
What is debriefing?
The post experimental explation of a study, including its purpose and any deceptions, to is participants.
What is the biological perspective?
The perspective concerned with the links between biology and behavior includes psychologists working in neuroscience, behavior genetics, and evolutionary psychology.
These researchers may call themselves behavioral neuroscientists, neuropsychologists, behavioral geneticists, psychological psyschologists, or biopsychologists.
What are the dendrites?
The neuron's bushy, branching extensions that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body.
What is the axon?
The neuron extension that passes messages through its branches to other neurons, or to muscles or glands.
What is the myelin sheath?
A fatty tissue layer segmentally encasing the axons of some neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed as neural impulses hop from one node to the next.
Is communication within a neuron electrical or chemical?
Electrical communications from chemical events.
What is the resting potential of a neuron?
The positive outside/negative inside state of fluids outside and inside the axon's membrane.
What is a threshold?
The level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse.
What is an action potential of a neuron?
A neural impulse, a brief electrical charge that travels down the axon.
Is it a + or – charge?
A positive charge.
Does the strength of the stimulus affect the speed of transmission?
Increasing the level of stimulation above the threshold will not increase the neural impulse intensity.
What is the all or none response?
Increasing the level of stimulation above the threshold will not increase the neural impulse intensity. the neuron's reaction is called an all-or-nothing response.
Is communication between neurons electrical or chemical?
Electrical
What is a synapse?
The junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron.
The tiny gap at this junction is call the synaptic gap or synaptic cleft.
What are neurotransmitters?
Chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by teh sending neurons, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby, influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse.
What is reuptake?
A neurotransmitter's reabsorption by the sending neuron.
Be familiar with the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
Enables muscle action, learning and memory
With Alzheimer's disease, ACh-producing neurons deteriote.
What are endorphins?
"morphine within" - Natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure.
What are the ways that drug can influence neurotransmitters?
Pg 54
What comprises the central nervous system?
The brain and the spinal cord.
What comprises the peripheral nervous system?
The sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body.
Be able to explain the difference between the somatic and autonomic nervous system.
Somatic nervous system - controls skeletal muscles.

Autonomic nervous system - controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs.
the difference between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system the difference between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system.
Sympathetic system arouses.

Parasympathetic system calms.
Be able to explain the path of a reflex.
Skin receptors --> sensory neuron --> interneuron (spinal cord) --> Brain --> Interneuron --> motor neuron --> Muscle
What are hormones?
Chemical messengers that manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel though the bloodstream, and affect other tissues.
What is the pituitary gland and what does it do?
The endocrine systems most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and control other endocrine glands.
Be generally familiar with the different methods to study the brain: lesion, EEG, PET, MRI, fMRI.
Lesion - Tissue destruction. A brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue.
EEG - An amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweeps across the brain's surface.
PET - A visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a give task.
MRI - A technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images of soft tissue. MRI scans show brain anatomy
fMRI - A technique for revealing bloodflow and, therefore, brain activity for comparing successive MRI scans. fMRI scans show brain function.
You should know to know the functions of:

Brainstem
The oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; the brain stem is responsible for automatic survival functions.
You should know to know the functions of:

Medulla
The base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing.
You should know to know the functions of:

Cerebellum
The "little brain" at the rear of the rear of the brain stem; function include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance.
You should know to know the functions of:

Reticular formation
A nerve network that travels through the brain stem and plays an important role in controlling arousal.
You should know to know the functions of:

Thalamus
the brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brain stem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla.
Where in the brain does information cross over?
The brainstem is a crossover point, where most nerves to and from each side of the brain connect with the body's opposite side.
You should know to know the functions of:

Hypothalamus
A neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion and reward.
You should know to know the functions of:

Amygdala
Two lima bean-size neural clusters in the limbic system linked to emotion.
You should know to know the functions of:

Cerebral cortex
The intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemisphere; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center.
What are glial cells?
Cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons; they may also play a role in learning and thinking.
What are the functions of:

Temporal Lobe
Portion ofthe cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; Includes the auditory areas, each receiving information primarily from the opposite ear.
What are the functions of:

Occipital Lobe
Portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes areas that receive information from the visual fields.
What are the functions of:

Parietal Lobe
Portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position.
What are the functions of:

Frontal Lobe
Portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgement.
Which lobes contain the auditory cortex?
Temporal Lobes
Which lobes contain the visual cortex?
Occipital Lobes
What are the motor and sensory cortexes?

Which lobes are they in?
Motor Cortex - Area at the rear of the frontal lobes tha controls voluntary movements.

Sensory Cortex - Area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations.
Which body parts get more space on the sensory and motor cortex ?
The face, the lips, the thumb and the fingers.
Which lobes are involved in planning and making judgment and “personality?”
Frontal Lobes
What are association areas?
Areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking.
Is it accurate to say we only use 10% of our brain?
No because it is association areas cannot be easily mapped and are intermittent.
What is meant by plasticity?
The brain's ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or building new pathways based on experience.
What is neurogenesis?
The formation of new neurons.
What are split brain patients?
Patients that had split-brain surgery where the corpus callosum was surgically severed.
What is the corpus callosum?
The large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carry messages between them.
What hemisphere processes language?
The Left hemisphere.
What does the right hemisphere often do?
- Excels in making inferences
- Helps us modulate our speech
- Helps orchestrate our sense of self.
Review experiment on p. 78 Figure 2.34 (shown to right visual field, can name it; shown to left visual field- can only point to it but not name it).
Review experiment on p. 78 Figure 2.34 (shown to right visual field, can name it; shown to left visual field- can only point to it but not name it).