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25 Cards in this Set

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A speck of dirt that gets into your eye will naturally cause a blinking reflex. The speck of dirt is a(n)?
Unconditioned Stimulus
You watch a horror movie, and you are scared. Running through the background music is a sustained, high-pitched note on a violin. The next day, you are watching a drama that has a similar high-pitched violin in the background music, and you feel scared. Which process explains this effect?
Generalization
Bernard condition a rat to press a lever whenever he rang a bell. Then he taught the rat to press the lever when he flashed a light and not when he ring the bell. Once he’s accomplished this, the first conditioned response (pressing the lever when he rang the bell) has been __________. Then one day, the rat starts to press the lever when Bernard rang the bell and not when he flashed the light. In this situation, there was ________ ________ of the response.
Extinguished, Spontaneous recovery
When your dog’s veterinarian advised you to feed your dog in the morning instead of in the evening, it took several days for your dog to stop salivating late in the afternoon as you stirred around in the kitchen. This is an example of:
Extinction
Billy Bob’s Big Burger Barn is your favorite restaurant, and lately you’ve noticed that every time you walk by there on your way to class, your mouth starts to salivate. In this incidence of classical conditioning, the sight of the restaurant is the ______; your salivation is the __________.
US; UR
CS; CR
CS; UR
US; CR
CS; CR
One day, in the midst of his babbling, baby Berry uttered the sound “mama” in the presence of his mother. Berry’s mother screamed in delight. This noise startled baby Berry; he stopped uttering that sound for quite some time, illustrating the effects of:

Positive reinforcement
Negative reinforcement
Positive punishment
Negative punishment
Positive punishment
When Snookie goes out into the sun, she puts on sunglasses to reduce the glare. What type of reinforcement or punishment is this?
Negative reinforcement
The first time Victoria drank Tequila, she became quite sick. Now when she has a cocktail, she looks for drinks without Tequila. In this example, what could we call her reaction to Tequila?
A Conditioned Response (CR)
If salivation is an unconditioned response, what would food be considered?
An Unconditioned Stimulus (US)
What is the difference between primary and secondary reinforcers? Give an example of a secondary reinforcer.
Primary is most immediate and reinforcing, secondary comes after. Example of secondary reinforcer could be i.e. money!
Maria and Carlos purchase a toy airplane for their newborn’s crib to keep his attention. After a period of time, the infant may stop paying attention to the airplane. This is an example of?
Object permanence
Habituation
Assimilation
Schema development
Habituation
Jean Piaget called the idea that objects continue to exist even when they are not visible _______.
Object permanence
As children watched, Dr. Vanice poured the same amount of juice into two identical glasses. Then she poured the juice from one of those glasses into a taller, narrower glass. Children who haven’t mastered Piaget’s ______ would say that there is more juice in the long narrower one.
Conservation
The ability to use another person’s as useful information about the world is known as:
Social referencing
The psychologist who developed the so-called “strange situation” to study the bond that forms between infants and their primary caregivers was: ________. She found that a majority of American infants display a ______.
Mary Ainsworth; secure attachment style.
Morality is determined primarily by the extent to which it conforms to social rules in the _____ state of moral development.
Conventional
A heart begins to beat during which stage of prenatal development?
The embryonic stage
Jean Piaget’s stages of cognitive development include sensorimotor, ________, concrete operational, formal operational.
Preoperational
Younger adults experience fewer negative emotions than older adults. True or False?
False
According to Kohlberg’s theory, a person who determines morality by using principles that reflect core values is in the _______ stage of development.
Postconventional
An initial stage of learning. A response is established and then strengthen eventually stimulus comes to revoke a conditioned response.
Acquisition
Positive reinforcers _____ and negative reinforcers ______ the future probability of the behavior that led to these respective consequences.
Increase, increase
What type of learning is Ivan Pavlov well-known for?
Classical conditioning
Angus is learning how to lecture in large classes by watching Dr. Lewis teach Psychology 201. This is an example of?
Observational learning
How do people learn from operant conditioning?
They change their behavior based on the consequences that occurred as a result of that behavior.