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14 Cards in this Set

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consciousness
•Confusionis a loss of orientation (not knowing where, when, who and what you are), oftencombined with a loss of memory.•Deliriumis mild form of altered mental status in which the patient has inattention andreduced wakefulness.•Obtundationis a state similar to lethargy in which the patient has a lessened interest inthe environment, slowed responses to stimulation, and tends to sleep more thannormal with drowsiness in between sleep states.•Stupormeans that only vigorous and repeated stimuli will arouse the individual, andwhen left undisturbed, the patient will immediately lapse back to theunresponsive state.•Comais a state of unarousableunresponsiveness.
brain death
•Cause and irreversibility of thecondition••Absence of brain stem reflexes and motorresponses to pain••Absence of respiration with a PCO2 of 60 mm Hg or more••The justification for use of confirmatorytests and their results
veg state
•Absence of awareness of self andenvironment •An inability to interact with others•Absence of sustained or reproduciblevoluntary behavioral responses•Lack of language comprehension•Hypothalamic and brain stem function tomaintain life
brain herniation cingulate
•Cingulate–Involvescerebral artery–Clinicalsign: leg weakness
brain herniation •Central Transtentorial
–Involvesthe reticular activating system and corticospinaltract –Clinicalsigns: altered level of consciousness, decorticate posturing, rostral–caudaldeterioration
types of hydrocephalus:communicating
decreased absorption of cfs
•VasogenicEdema
–Occurs with conditions that impair thefunction of the blood–brain barrier and that allow transfer ofwater and protein from the vascular into the interstitial space
•Interstitial Cerebral Edema
–Edema of the central white matteras in hydrocephalus affecting the brain
Coup
•Coup—direct contusion of the brain at thesite of external force
Contrecoup
•Contrecoup—reboundinjury on the opposite side of the brain
conscusion
•Concussion refers to “animmediate and transient loss of consciousness accompanied by a brief period ofamnesia after a blow to the head.”
epidural hematoma
•Epidural Hematoma–Usually caused by head injury inwhich the skull is fractured–Develops between the inner table ofthe bones of the skull and the dura
•Ischemic Strokes
–Caused by an interruption of bloodflow in a cerebral vessel and are the most common type of strokes, accountingfor 70% to 80% of all strokes.
•Hemorrhagic Strokes
–Caused by bleeding into braintissue usually from a blood vessel rupture caused by hypertension, aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, head injury, or blood dyscrasias