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35 Cards in this Set

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Essay Question 1: compare and contrast the Neo-Classical democratic theorists and their classical predecessors on the fundamentals of their theories. How did liberal Democratic theorists differ from both of them.


Q1 P1: Classical Democratic Theorists: (5)

-Locke, Hobbes, Rousseau

Believe in:

-natural laws (laws given to us by God)


-Individual as greatest value to society

-govnmt. responsive to people through majority

-basic equality

Q1 P2: Neo-classical Democratic Theorists: (6)

-Burke, Madison (to some extent)

-Social institutions and political instability have priority to maintain an economy

-Concerned with (scared of) popular/majority rule

-They believe in rule by benevolent minority

-People aren't rational enough to govern themselves sometimes

-They reject the idea of basic equality bc people differ in ability and intellect.

-Property, status, ability, in high birth deserve more representation bc they are the best society has to offer therefore society should be geared towards their success

Q1 P3: Liberal Democrats

-JS Mill, Green, Dewey

- Rejection of Natural Law

-Positive vision of the state

-Recognition of economic responsibility of state for its citizens

-They also believe that institutions have no inherent value, they are malleable, they should change when needed

Essay Question 2: Compare and Contrast the populist/majoritarian model of how a democracy works with the Pluralist model.What are the assumptions associated with each model? What are the criticisms most frequently leveled against these models of democracy? How well are these assumptions met in the American setting? Are both some of them right? why?


Q2 P1 Assumptions of populist democracy model

-The citizens be interested/knowledgable

-Citizens paticipate in elections and other political activities

-That politicians be held accountable for their decisions by the public

Q2 P2 Criticisms of populist democracy model

-We are going to find that the citizens of the US aren't all that interested/knowledgeable

-Citizens don't all participate

-Politicians aren't held accountable all that often

Q2 P3 Assumptions of pluralist democracy

-A rich panoply of interest groups

-Decentralized structure of gov

-Cross cutting cleavages

-Countervailing power

-Self activation

-Minority protection

-Gov as referee

Q2 P4 Criticisms of Pluralist Democracy

-Not all interest groups are organized

-Not all interests are equal


Question 3:Compare Dual federalism to Cooperative federalism, Cooperative federalism to Cooptive federalism


Q3 P1 Dual federalism


-Associated with laissez faire capitalism (free market)

-Separation from national to state power

-National gov of enumerated powers only

-Within perspected spheres state and national gov are sovereign

-The relationship between two centers of power is one of a equality

Q3 P2 Cooperative federalism

-New deal to the 1960s

-National gov of more expansive powers

-Marble Cake: No clearly separate spheres and shared functions

-Inter governmental partnership

-Not adversaries


-Cooperative federalism; shared policy responsibilities

-National state and local levels work together



-Law Enforcement

- Transportation

Q3 P3 Cooptive federalism

-60s to 1980

-National gov agenda becomes dominant

-Inter governmental relationships less coopertive

-Policies focused on minimum level of service across states

-Interstate policy variability devalued

Q3 P4 Current State of federalism

-1980 on to present

-A more conservative mood in the public reacted to the era of cooptive federalism

-Ronald Reagan and the diminished role of federal government

-Federal budget deficit

-All these ideas made the populists werry of gov spending and yet it still happened

Q4 The development of democracy and its derivation from American political culture. What are the myriad parts of American political culture? How did those cultural traits get translated into the democratic system that was put into place in America? Madison's dilemma, how it derived from American political culture, and how it was resolved by the institutional framework that was put into place.


Q4 P1 Development of Democracy

Transition from old world to new world

-New world ideas originated from Europe

-Our revolution was similar to the French

-Introduced idea of individualism

-We created constitution

-Gave individuals inaliable rights and set the foundation for us to elect representatives creating a democracy

Q4 P3 Parts of Political Culture

Liberty, Individualism, Equality, Self-government

Q4 P4 Madison's ideals

-He believe that human liberty should be the goal of the political system.

-He did not trust strong or big government bc it restricts freedom

-He believed that human nature was aggressive, egocentric, and unchangeable

Q4 P5 Madison's dilema

-Gov is neccassery but power should be limited

-Popular gov is better than elite (legitimacy)

-The people can't be trusted nor the gov can be trusted to maintain the liberty that is the goal

-Solution was separation of powers and federalism

Political Culture

The widely shared and deep-seated political beliefs of a particular people

Characteristics of culture

-Belongs to group

-Transmitted across generations

-Shapes but does not control action

-Resistant to change

Sources of American political culture

Abundance, frontere, protestentism, lockean values

Lockean Values

-The state of nature

-Rights prior to states

-Social contract

-Popular sovereignty

-Limited gov

Core Values

Individualism, unity, diversity

Process Democracy

-Democracy is simply a way of making decisions --as long as there is a mecanism by which popular will can be determined (voting) thats all you need for there to be democracy

Principle democracy

-The individual is of major importance

-Each individual is basically equal

-Each individual has inalienable rights

-The process is secondary


Elected representatives whose obligation is to act in accordance with their own consciences as to what policies are in the best interests of the public. (Burke's model of representation - neo classical)


Elected representatives whose obligation is to act in accordance with the expressed wishes of the people they represent.


The notion that wealthy and well-connected individuals exercise power over certain areas of public policy

Separation of Powers

The division of the powers of gov among separate institutions or branches

-Preserves values of political culture

-Creates checks and balances

How does constitutionalism help restrict government

Constitutional provisions for limited government such as grants of power, and the bill of rights which the national gov. can not ignore

Different systems

Confederal: states rule

Federal: state and national

Unitary: One nation, all powerful and supreme

Grant in aid

Cash from federal gov to state or local gov to be used for specific purposes spelled out by federal gov

Civil Rights

rights to personal liberty gauranteed to all US citizens and they ensure equal opportunity to citizens regardless of race, religion or sex

-positive freedoms

Civil Liberties

The freedom one has from arbortrary gov interfierinces

-Negative freedoms