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44 Cards in this Set

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Apathetic Public

The public doesn't care about politics.

Political Participation

The public was previously believed to be apathetic towards government. Disproved by Vaba and Nye in their study of 1972. Finding that the public is politically involved except when voting.

Public Opinion

The stated preference that people express about issues, policies, and politicians.

Intensity

How strongly the public feels about a political topic

Saliency

The relevance of a political topic to one's self

Stability

How stable the public's opinion on a topic is

Political Ideaology

The complex set of ideas that are incorporated early in people's lives

Political Culture

Values that a given society holds.


Example: Americans valuing freedom and democracy

Political Socialization

How we acquire our political beliefs.


Examples: Family and School

Straw Polls

Arbitrary, random and biased in information.

Random-Sample Polls

Sample various areas randomly to answer a specific question. It helps to know where, when and the margin of error.



1500 people is a large enough sample size for Random-Sample polls.

Halo Effect

Providing socially acceptable answers when asked questions

Political Parties

Groups that want to take control of the government.



Not in the constitution, believed to be agents of disunity. Politics originally had the federalists and anti-federalists.

Party Platforms

Where a party stands on issues debated on during elections.

Three-Headed Giants

Parties are comprised of organizers, the electorate, and officials

Party Identification

Independent, Democrats, Republicans

Third Parties

All political parties other than the Republican or Democratic.

Electoral College

A collection of voters made under the idea that States choose electors to vote for presidents. 538 voters altogether.

History of Democratic Party

Government began with two factions, feds and anti-feds.



Thomas Jefferson won the 1800 election, destroying the federalist party. The Anti-Federalists became the Democratic-Republicans.



In 1828, Andrew Jackson turned the party into just the Democrats.

History of Republican Party

The Whig party was made to pay homage to the British empire's empathetic Whig party during the Revolutionary War.



The Whig Party made two presidents:


1840 - William Henry Harrison


1848 - Zachary Taylor



After, the Whig party joined with anti-slavery Democrats to form the Republican party.



With the formation of the Republican party, South Carolina said they'd succeed from the union, generating the Civil War.

Party Structure

Precincts, Wards, State, and National levels all organize who runs for office, manages finances, and develops campaigns.

Primaries

Members of parties vote to see who will be nominated.

Open Primary

Vote on whichever ballad you want.

Closed Primary

People are registered to vote on either the Republican or Democratic ballad each time they go to vote.

Caucuses

A meeting to debate and decide who will represent a party at a national convention. It takes 1/3rd of State votes to do this.

Political Convention

Is a meeting for a political party to typically select candidates or nominees.

Presidential Debates

A customary debate between the political candidates of the two largest parties. Used to convince undecided voters to decide for one or the other.

Interest Groups

Generally Economic, Activist groups, or Government Related

Lobbyist

Representatives for PACs. No restrictions on who can be a lobbyist, but they're generally experienced with government.

Political Action Committees

A business or group of businesses that act like interest groups.

Equal Time Rule

Businesses may not discriminate based on whether they favor a presidential candidate or not.

Selective Exposure

Political exposure based on what one's existing beliefs.

Voter Characteristics

1. White people


2. College educated


3. Larger Income (More than median)


4. White Collar Jobs


5. Current or Previous Government Employee


6. Married


7. Urban Folk

Yellow Journalism

Sensationalism, or grossly exaggerating

1986 Fairness Doctrine

Press no longer has to show the opposite political parties viewpoints anymore because it is so readily available elsewhere.

Sources of Campaign Funding

1. Individual Contributions


2. Candidates


3. Political Action Committees


4. Party Fundraising

Partisanship

A person's political party

Reapportioning

Changing the amount of people a representative will represent during a census.

Popular Vote

Vote determined by the people

Electoral Vote

Vote determined by the Electoral College

Congressional District
A district of people that elects and is represented by a member of the house.

12th Amendment

Defined how the president is elected through the Electoral college. Each member has one vote that is cast to a candidate with the majority of votes declaring the new president.

2002 - BCRA - Bi Partisan Campaign Reform Act

McCain-Feingold - Banned soft money contributions at the national level. Raised the average contribution to $2000 per person due to inflation.

1971 - FECA - Federal Election Campaign Act

Limited contributions from people to campaigns to $1000 per person. Business could no longer give money to campaigns.



People were still able to provide soft money contributions to nominees by providing money to their party.