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95 Cards in this Set

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a document that permits the police to search a specific location and take items that might be evidence of a crime

Search Warrant

Searches without a warrant (3)

1) the object is in plain view of the police

2)the discovery of the incriminating evidence is inadvertent


3)it is immediately apparent that the object is evidence of a crime.



To Avoid entrapment, Police must not (2)

1)persistently harass into committing an offence that he or she would not have committed had it not been for the actions of the police.


2)People cannot be targeted at random, must be a reasonable suspicion that the person is already engaged in criminal activity.

provides police officers with a working model that sets out the course of action to be taken in use- of-force situations

force options model

the level of potential danger posed by a person confronted by police officers, generally in the form of weapons or levels of resistance

demonstrated threat

five levels of resistance

Cooperative, Non-Cooperative, Resistant, Combative, Showing the potential to cause grievous bodily harm or death.



The person acts in a manner that the police officer has reason to believe could result in grievous bodily harm or death to the public or to the police—for example, using a knife, a firearm, or a baseball bat.

Showing the potential to cause grievous bodily harm or death.

The person attempts or threatens to apply force to anyone, for example, by punching, kicking, or clenching fists with the intent to hurt or resist.

Combative

The person demonstrates resistance to control by the police officer through behaviors such as pulling away, pushing away, or running away.

Resistant

There is little or no physical resistance. The person does not comply to the officer’s request, showing verbal defiance and little or no physical response.

Non-Cooperative

There is no resistance. The person responds positively to verbal requests and commands. The person willingly complies.

Cooperative

Levels of Force Intervention (5)

Officer presence, dialogue, Empty hands, Compliance tools, Lethal force.

the generally accepted use-of-force standard that police officers have the authority to use one higher level of force than thatwith which they are confronted

one-plus-one standard

a control technique thatis highly unlikely to cause death or serious injury

less lethal force option

Tasers adopted in, and notable controversy

late 1990s, Robert Dziekanski

Braidwood Commission in British Columbia recommendations (3)

A Taser should be used only in criminal matters and not to enforce municipal bylaws or provincial statutes.• A Taser should only be used when a subject is causing bodily harm or is about to cause bodily harm.• A Taser should be used only as a last resort.

police used force in

0.7 percent of encounters with the public.

Nearly ? percent of the cases in which force was used involved a person who was under the influence of alcohol and/or drugs.

90%

public approval ratings of the police have fallen from the 80 percent range to ?

54 percent in 2010.

As the average age of police officers increases (Force),

their use of force tends to decrease.

Shootings are more likely to occur when

at least two officers are present.

Canadian police use lethal force

—only ten times a year, on average.

an incident in which the victim acts in a manner calculated to provoke the use of deadly force on the part of the police

victim-precipitated homicide (“suicide by cop”)

the physiological, psych- ological, physical, and emotional reactions that may occur in an individual who has been involved in a traumatic incident, e.g., patrol officers involved in a fatal shooting

critical incident stress

a policy that establishes standards of behaviour for police officers

code of ethics

the unwritten rule that exists among police officers not to report on a colleague's errors, misconducts, or crimes.

blue wall of silence

individual police officer misconduct

Rotten apple

group misconduct by police officers

Rotten barrel

misconduct by a police service

rotten orchards

corrupt practice

(1) failing to account for money or property that has been received, (2) incurring an obligation or debt that may affect his or her duties, and (3) improperly using his or her position for private advantage

Actions, Often Criminal, That Undermine the Administration of Justic

fabricating evidence, backfilling police notebooks, committing perjury in court while under oath etc...

a view by police officersthat the ends justify the means (misconduct)

Noble Cause Corruption

Police dept. known for corruption

New Orleans

example involves officers accepting gifts and gratuities

grey area of police work,

Code of Professional Conduct Regulations (BC)

the police officer, while off duty, asserts or purports to assert authority as a police officer and does an act that would constitute a disciplinary default if done while the police officer is on duty, or (b) the police officer, while off duty, acts in a manner that is likely to discredit the reputation of the municipal police department with which the police officer is employed.”1

Off duty standard

higher standard than ordinary citizen

prevention programs designed to alter the conditions that provide opportunities for criminal offences

primary crime prevention programs

programs that focus onareas that produce crime and disorder

secondary crime prevention program

programs designed toprevent adults and youths from reoffending

tertiary crime prevention programs

a holistic approach to crime that focuses on the people, places, and situations where criminal activity occurs

crime reduction

most comprehensive crime reduction strategy (CRS) in Canada

Surrey, b.C.,

D.A.R.E

(Drug Abuse Resistance education)

a tactical strategy based on the idea that the police should address the causesof recurrent crime and disorder

problem-oriented policing (POP)

the view that crime is only a visible symptom of much larger problems

iceberg (or 80/20) rule

a problem-solving model for police

SARA (scanning, analysis, response, assessment)

the view that if minor crimes are left unad- dressed an environmentfor more serious crime will be created

broken windows approach

broken windows approach emerged in

New York City in the 1980s

proactive operations by the police to targetand apprehend criminal offenders

Crime attack strategies

strict order maintenance approach by the police in a specific area, coupled with high police visibility and presence, with a focus on disorder and minor infrac- tions, will reduce more serious criminal activity

zero- tolerance policing, also referred to as “confident policing,” “proactive policing,” or “community policing with the gloves off.”

SHOP, MDRT

Calgary Police Service Serious Habitual Offender Program (SHOP) and Multi-Disciplinary Resource Team (MDRT). Case management program for youths and adults designated as serious habitual offenders.

(ROPE)

Repeat Offender Program Enforcement Squad, Toronto Police Service and the York Regional Police

IPPI

The Integrated Police-Parole Initiative, officers work alongside parole officers to monitor the activities of high- risk offenders released into the community.

advising the media, crime victims, and the public when certain offenders are released

community notification

an approach based on the principle that criminal behaviour injures the victim, the community, and the offender

restorative justice

all the participants—including judge, defence lawyer, prosecutor, police officer, victim and family, offender and family, and com- munity residents—sit facing one another in a circle

circle sentencing

the relocation of crime from one place, time, target, offence, or tactic to another due to effective crime prevention and crime response strategies

crime displacement

Crime displacement (5)

(1) geographic, which involves offenders moving their criminal activity to another area; (2) temporal, in which criminals alter the times they commit offences; (3) tactical, in which offenders develop different strate­ gies to commit crimes; (4) target, in which offenders select different places to commit crimes or different people to victimize; and (5) functional, in which changes in technology reduce criminal opportunities in some areas but open them up in others

the identification of police priorities and objectives and associated resource requirements

strategic planning

a systematic approach to crime prevention and crime response based on the analysis of statistical and other data

Crime analysis

Crime analysis

Tactical analyses focus on the “when, where, and how” of crimes.


Strategic analyses examine long-term crime patterns and trends, includingseasonal variations in crime.•


Administrative analyses provide information to police managers, including comparative figures for police services.• Investigative analyses profile suspects (and crime victims for police investigators), including chronic offenders and specific types of offenders (e.g., car thieves).


Intelligence analyses focus on linkages between offenders and between crime groups, identifying patterns.


Operational analyses focus on how the police service is utilizing its resources— including its patrol units, its specialty units, and so on.11

computer-generated maps that depict the incidence and patterns of specific types of criminal activity in specific geographic areas

crime maps

the application of criminal intelligence analysis tofacilitate crime reduction and prevention

intelligence-led policing (ILP)

a strategy designed to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of police services while holding police personnel account- able for achieving crime reduction objectives

Compstat

Compstat (4)

Timely and accurate intelligence


Effective tactics


Rapid deployment


Relentless follow-up and assessment

investigative units that focus on specific types of offenders or criminal activities

problem-oriented special unit

police units that are distinguished by specialized equipment and tactics

method-oriented special unit

the protocol for conducting investigations

major case management mode

cases in which the perpetrator is readily identifiable

smoking gun investigation

cases in which the suspect is unknown and extensive investigation is required

whodunit investigations

A crime scene search is conducted in order to gather evidence that will (3)

determine the facts of the crime committed; establish the methods used to commit the crime; and identify the perpetrator(s) of the crime

Two basic approaches are used to search a crime scene:

a cautious search, a vigorous search

evidence in criminal investigations that is detected through one of the five senses

direct evidence

evidence not directlyobserved but that can implicate an offender

circumstantial evidence

It has been found that mistaken eyewitness identification

accounts for more convictions of innocent people than all other errors combined

the assumption that physical evidence is transferred during the commission of a criminal offence

principle of transfer and exchang

the investigative failure to recognize a pattern linking one crime with one or more others

linkage blindness

a strategy to identify suspects by constructing biographical and psychological sketches based on crime scene evidence

criminal profiling

ViCLAS

Violent Crime Linkage Analysis System; a system used by investigators that includes information on predatory and sexual crimes of violence

the analysis of behaviour patterns that relate to space or geography, with particular reference to the journey to crime

geographic profiling

genetic information that can be used in case investigations

DNA

DNA testing has been accepted by Canadian courts since

1988

specialized units that focus on unsolved serious crimes

cold case squads

a controversial investiga- tive strategy designed to secure confessions from crime suspects

Mr. Big technique

Mr. Big Stats

Mr. Big technique has a 75 percent confession rate and a 95 percent conviction rate,

About ? percent of Canadians are visible minorities.

13

Windsor Police Service

implemented a mandatory training program to build awareness of homophobic violence and to develop positive relationships with GLBT communities.

the requirement that police officers make decisions on the basis of reasonable suspicion and probable grounds rather than stereotypes

bias-free policing

police targeting of mem- bers of a particular racial group, on the basis of the supposed criminal propensity of the entire group

racial profiling

a disproportionate police focus on a racialized population or neighbourhood

overpolicing

police stops or searches for a minor reason that are used for more intrusive intervention

pretext policing

“Racial Profiling Policy”

In 2011, the Ottawa Police Service developed a “Racial Profiling Policy” that sets out the definitions of racism and racial profiling and the expected standards of behaviour for police officers.

Nearly ? percent of canadians are aboriginal

4

police work in northern communities that places officers under constantscrutiny; also, the high impact of their decisions

high visibility/high consequence policin

officers in the communities are often required to “cover” for other agencies after hours and on weekends and holidays

“mandate creep”

(FNCPS)

First Nations Community Police Service