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282 Cards in this Set

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What four (4) things can a project create?

a) A product that can be eithera component of another item, and enhancement of an item, or an end item initself

b) A service or a capability to perform a service

c) An improvement in the existing product or service lines

d) A result, such as an outcome or document

1)Temporary endeavor with a definite ___________and _________.

2) Every project creates a unique product, service, or result. The outcome may be ___________ or ________________.

3) An ongoing ________________ is generally a ______ process that follows an organization’s existing procedures.

1a. beginning

1b. end

2a. tangible

2b. intangible

3a. work effort

3b. repetitive

Explain Figure 1-1 in simple terms

Organizationalstrategies and priorities are linked and have relationships between portfolioand programs, and between programs and individual projects.

Project management is the ________ of _________,_________, ____________,and ________________ to projectactivities to meet the project requirements.






Project management is accomplished throughthe ________ and _________of the ________ logically grouped projectmanagement processes categorized into five (5) Process Groups.

appropriate application



The5 process groups are

i) Initiating

ii) Planning

iii) Executing

iv) Monitoringand Controlling

v) Closing

Managinga project typically includes the following activities

i) Identifyingrequirements

ii) Addressingthe various expectations of the stakeholders

iii) Setting up,maintaining, and carrying out communications among stakeholders that areactive, effective, and collaborative in nature

iv) Managing stakeholders

v) Balancingthe competing project constraints, which include, but aren’t limited to Scope,Quality, Schedule, Budget, Resources, and Risks

What is progressiveelaboration? When does it occur? What does it allow a project management teamto do?

Involves continuouslyimproving and detailing a plan as more detailed and more specific informationand more accurate estimates become available.

It allows a project managementteam to define work and manage it to a greater level of detail as the projectevolves.

OrganizationalProject Management (OPM) is a ________ framework utilizing ________, program,and __________________ managementas well as __________________ processes to consistently and ___________deliver organizational __________________producing better _________________,better ____________, and asustainable __________________advantage.

1) strategy execution, 2) project 3) portfolio 4) organizational enabling

5) predictably 6) strategy 7) performance 8) results 9) competitive

Portfoliomanagement aligns with __________strategies by selecting the right programs or projects, prioritizing the ________, and providing the needed ________, whereas program management ________its projects and program _________and controls ____________in order to realize specified benefits.







Projectmanagement develops and implements __________ to achieve a specific __________ that isdriven by the objectives of the program or portfolio it is subjected to andultimately, to organizational strategies.



OPM advances ___________ by linking project, program, andportfolio management principles and practices with organizational __________ to support strategic goals.

organizational capability


Be able to explain OPM by comparingdifferent dimensions of the projects, programs, and portfolios.

See Table 1-1.

Aprogram is defined as a . . .

group of related projects, subprograms, and program activities managedin a coordinated way to obtain benefits not available for managing themindividually.

Programs may include elements of related work outside the scopeof the discrete projects in the program. A project may or may not be part of aprogram but a program will always have projects.

Programmanagement is defined as the . . .

application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to a program inorder to meet the program requirements and to obtain benefits and control notavailable by managing projects individually.

Projects within a program are relatedthrough the ________ or __________capability.

common outcome


a) Program management focuses on the project___________ and helps todetermine the ___________ approachfor managing them.



A portfoliorefer to . . .

projects, programs, sub portfolios, and operations managed as a group toachieve strategic objectives.

Doprojects or programs of a portfolio need to be interdependent or directlyrelated? Why?

May or may not necessarily be interdependent or directly related. Couldjust try to maximize return on investments and could be diverse set.

Whatstrategic considerations typically bring about projects?

a. Market demand

b. Strategic opportunity/business need

c. Social need

d. Environmental consideration

e. Customer request

f. Technological advance

g. Legal requirement

A project management office (PMO) is a __________structure that ___________ theproject-related ___________processes and facilitates the sharing of __________,methodologies, _________ and _________.







Supportive PMO

Provide a consultativerole to projects by supplying templates, best practices, training, access toinfo and lessons learned from other projects. Serves as a project repositoryand degree of control is low.e

Controlling PMO

Providesupport and require compliance through various means. Compliance may involveadopting project management frameworks or methodologies, using specifictemplates, forms and tools, or conformance to governance. Degree of control ismoderate

Directive PMO

Take control of the projectsby directly managing the projects. Degree of control is high.

The PMOintegrates _________ and ___________ from corporate strategic projectsand __________ how higher level ________________ are being fulfilled.




strategic objectives

Summarize six (6) ways a PMO can support projectmanagers

a) Managing sharedresources administered by the PMO

b) Identifying and developing project managementmethodology, best practices, and standards

c) Coaching, mentoring, training, and oversight

d) Monitoring compliance with project managementstandards, policies, procedures, and templates by means of project audits

e) Developing and managing project policies,procedures, templates, ect (organizational processassets)

f) Coordinating communication across projects

Name four (4) points in a product life cyclewhen a project might intersect with operations?

a) At each closeout phases

b) When developing a new product, upgrading aproduct, or expanding outputs

c) While improving operations or the productdevelopment process

d) Untilthe end f the product life cycle

Organizations use governance to establish _____________ and performance_____________.



What doesstrategic direction provide?

The purpose, expectations, goals, and actions necessary to guidebusiness pursuit and is aligned with business objectives.

What happenswhen business alignment for a project is constant?

The chance for project success greatly increases because theproject remains aligned with the strategic direction of the organization.

Project-basedorganizations (PBOs) refer to various organizational forms that __________ temporary __________for carrying out their __________.




PBOs conductthe majority of their _______ as _________and/or provide ________ rather than __________ approaches.





Organizational strategy should provide ___________ and __________to project management



Business value is defined as the …

The entire value of the business; the total sum of all tangibleand intangible elements. Depending on organization, business value scope can beshort medium or long-term. Value scope may be created through the effectivemanagement of ongoing operations.

Describe the competencies that effective projectmanagement requires the project manager to possess

i) Knowledge = What the project manager knows about project management

ii) Performance = what project manager is able to do or accomplish whileapplying his project management knowledge

iii) Personal = How the project manager behaves when performing theproject or related activity

Be very familiar with the interpersonal skills of a Project Manager aslisted in paragraph 1.7.2 and described more fully in Appendix X3.

Leadership, Team building, Motivation, Communication

Influencing, Decision Making, Political and cultural awareness

Negotiation, Trust building, Conflict Management, Coaching

Organizations are . . .

Systematic arrangements of entities (persons or departments)aimed at accomplishing a purpose, which may involve undertaking projects. `

Organizational culture is shaped by . . .

The common experience of members ofthe organization and most organizations have developed unique cultures overtime by practice and common usage.

· Shared visions, missions, values, beliefs, andexpectations

· Regulations, policies, methods, and procedures

· Motivation and rewards systems· Risk tolerance

· View of leadership, hierarchy, and authorityrelationships

· Code of conduct, work ethic, and work hours

· Operating environments

Organizationalstructure is an ___________ _________ factor.

enterprise environmental

Identify and summarize the two categories of organizational process assets.

1) Processes and Procedures

2) Corporate Knowledge Base

First Processes and Procedures

Initiating and Planning

(a) Guidelines and criteria for standardizing project processes andprocedures

(b) Organizational standards (like policies)

(c) Templates

Second Processes and Procedures

Executing, Monitoring, and Controlling

(a) Change control procedures, including the modification andapproval of change procedures

(b) Financial control procedures

(c) Issue and defect management procedures defining issue and defectcontrols, issue and defect identification and resolution, and action itemtracking

(d) Organizational communication requirements

(e) Procedures for work authorization

(f) Risk control procedures

(g) Standardized guidelines, work instructions, proposal evaluationcriteria, and performance measurement criteria

Corporate Knowledge Base Summary

(1)Configuration managementknowledge bases containing the versions and baselines of all performingorganization standards, policies, procedures, and any project documents

(2) Financial databases containing info like labor hours, incurredcosts, budgets. And any project costs overruns

(3) Historical info and lesson learned knowledge bases

(4) Issue and defect management databases containing issue anddefect status, control info, issue and defect resolution, and action itemresults

(5) Process measurement databases used to collect and make availablemeasurement data on processes and products

(6) Project files from previous projects

Enterprise environmental factorsrefer to __________, not under thecontrol of the __________,that influence, ___________, or directthe project.


project team


A stakeholder is . . .

Individual, group, or organization who may affect,be affected by, or perceive itself to be affected by a decision, activity, oroutcome of a project. May be actively involved and have interests that areaffected by performance of the project in positive or negative way. Can createconflict with different expectations. Influence the project with agendas

Stakeholders include all __________ of the project team as well as all_________ entities that are __________ or ___________to the organization.





Stakeholders have varying levels of ____________ and ____________ when participating on aproject.

How can this level change overthe course of the project’s life cycle?



Mayrange from occasional contributions in surveys to full project sponsorship. Candetract from success of project, either passively or actively.

Stakeholder identification is a ______________process throughout the entire project life cycle.


Project governance is an ______________function that is aligned with the ____________governance model and that encompasses the ___________life cycle.




Project governance framework provides the ______________ and team with ____________, ____________,and _____________ models and tools for ____________ the project, while supporting and ___________ the project for successful delivery.

project manager






Why is project governance a critical element of any project?

1) Provides comprehensive, consistent method of controlling the project and ensuring its success by defining and documenting, and communicating reliable, repeatable,project practices.

2) Includes a framework for making project decisions, defines roles, responsibilities, and accountabilities for the success of the project

3) Determines the effectiveness of the project manager.

How should the success of a project be measured?

In terms of completing the project within theconstraints of scope, time, cost, quality, resources, and risk as approvedbetween the project managers and senior management.

The project team includes the project manager and the….

Group of individuals who act together in performingthe work of the project to achieve its objectives. Team structure can varywidely, but project manager is leader of the team

A project life cycle is series of ___________ that a project passes through from its___________ to its ____________.




Theproject life cycle provides the basic ___________for __________ the project, regardlessof the specific work involved.



Labeland Explain Figure 2-9, illustrating risk and uncertainty.


Be especially familiar with the examples ofproject stakeholders and the specific roles they play.


A project phase is a . . .

Collection oflogically related project activities that culminates in the completion of oneor more deliverables.

Used when the natureof the work to be performed is unique to a portion of the project and aretypically linked to the development of a specific major deliverable.

Identify the three characteristics that all projectphase exhibit

a) Work has distinct focusthat differs from any other phase. Often involves different organizations,locations, and skill sets

b) Achieving the primarydeliverable or objective of the phase requires controls or processes unique tothe phase or its activities.

c) Closure of the phases ends with some form of transfer of thework product produced as the phase deliverable. Phase end represents a naturalpoint to reassess the activities underway and to change or terminate project ifnecessary.

Describe the two basic types of phase-to-phaserelationships

a) Sequential - phases starts only when the previous phase is complete

b) Overlapping – Starts prior to completion of the previous one

Understand fully the characteristics and differences between thefollowing

a) PredictiveLife Cycles

b) Iterativeand Incremental Life Cycles

c) AdaptiveLife Cyclesa


Projectmanagement is the application of . . .

Knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activitiesto meet the project requirements. Requires effective management of the projectmanagement processes.

Aprocess is a set of ________actions and ____________ to create a _____________ product, service or result.




Why should organizational process assets(OPAs) and enterprise environmental factors (EEFs) be taken into account forevery process?

OPAs provideguidelines and criteria for tailoring the organization’s processes to thespecific needs of the project.EEFs may constrainthe project management options

Thetwo major categories of project processes are

a) Project Management Processes – Ensure effective flow of the project throughout thelife cycle.

b) Product-oriented Processes – Specify and create the project’s product c

Provide a summary description of the following five categories known as Process Groups

1) InitiatingProcess Group

2) Planning Process Group

3) Executing Process Group

4) Monitoring and Controlling Process Group

5) Closing Process Group

InitiatingProcess Group

Processes performed todefine a new project or a new phase of an existing project by obtainingauthorization to start the project or phase

PlanningProcess Group

Processes required to establishthe scope of the project, refine the objectives, and define the course ofaction required to attain the objectives that the project was undertaken toachieve.

ExecutingProcess Group

Processes performed tocomplete the work defined in the project management plan to satisfy the projectspecifications.

Monitoring and Controlling Process Group

Processes required to track,review, and regulate the progress and performance of the project; identify anyareas in which changes to the plan are required; and initiate the correspondingchanges

Closing Process Group

Processes performed tofinalize all activities across all Process Groups to formally close the projector phase

sketch, label and describe the interactionsbetween the common project management process groups, Figure 3-1.


Describe Figure 3-3, Project Management Process Interactions, as you wouldto your boss.


Work performance data

Raw observations andmeasurements identified during activities performed to carry out the projectwork

Work performance information

Performance data collectedfrom various controlling processes, analyzed in context and integrated based onrelationships across areas

Work performance reports processes

Physical or electronicrepresentation of work performance info compiled in project documents, intendedto generate decisions or raise issues, actions, or awareness.

sketch the flow of project information across the variousprocesses used to manage a project. Figure 3-5


As each knowledge area is studied, beprepared to map each of the 47 project management processeswith the applicable knowledge area and process group.

See Table 3-1.


ProjectIntegration Management includes the processes and activities needed to ________, _________,________, __________,and __________ the various processesand project management activities within the Project Management Process Groups.






DescribeFigure 4-1 in your own words


4.1 Develop ProjectCharter– The process of developing a _________that formally _________ the existenceof a project AND provides the project manager with the __________ to apply organizational resources toproject activities




4.2 Develop ProjectManagement Plan– The process of _________, _________, and _________ALL subsidiary plans and integrating them into a comprehensive projectmanagement plan. The project’sintegrated _________ and subsidiary __________ may be included within the projectmanagement plan.






4.3 Direct and Manage Project Work – The process of _________and ________ the work defined in theproject management plan and implementing



4.4 Monitor and ControlProject Work– The process of ________, ___________, and ________project progress AGAINST the _____________objectives defined in the project management plan.





4.5 Perform IntegratedChange Control– The process of ____________ ALL changerequests; approving ______________ andmanaging ____________ to deliverables, ____________________, project _______________, and the project management plan;and ____________ their disposition.




organizational process assets



4.6 Close Project orPhase– The process of ___________ ALLactivities across ALL of the Project Management Process Groups to formally __________ the phase or project.



Whydo we need to manage project integration?

Needed in situations where individual processes interact. Need to address every process and the projectenvironment to determine the level of implementation for each process withinthe project

What is the key benefit of developing a projectcharter?

A well-defined project start andboundaries, creation of a formal record of the project, and a direct way forsenior management to formally accept and commit to the project.

Theproject charter establishes a __________ between the performing and ___________organizations. In the case of externalprojects, a formal ___________ istypically the preferred way to establish an agreement.




Inthe case of an external project, a project charter is still used to establish__________ agreements within anorganization to assure proper delivery under the contract.


Theapproved project charter formally __________the project. A project manager is ___________ and __________as early in the project as is feasible.




Theproject charter should be authorized by the __________. The project charterprovides the project manager with the __________to plan and __________ the project.

sponsoring entity



Projectsare initiated by an entity __________ tothe project. The initiator or sponsorshould be at the level that is appropriate to _________ and __________ resources tothe project.


procure funding


Projects are initiated due to internal _________ needs OR external _________. These needs or influences often trigger the creation of a _________ analysis, _________study, _________ case, or ___________ of the situation that the projectshould address.







Charteringa project ____________ alignment of theproject to the strategy and the ongoing __________of the organization.



Whyis a project charter not considered to be a contract?


Theproject statement of work (SOW) is a ___________ of products, services, or _________to be delivered by a project.

narrative description


Whatis an organization’s business need based on?


Whatdoes the product scope description document?


Whatdoes the strategic plan document?


Whyshould ALL projects be aligned with their organization’s strategic plan?


Whatdoes the business case or similar document describe?


What internal or external stimuli prompts the creation ofa business case?


The project manager is responsible for ensuringthat the project __________ andefficiently meets the __________ of theorganization and those __________ ofa broad set of ________, asdefined in the business case.





Whyare agreements used as inputs to a Project Charter? What form do these agreements take?


What type of inputs to the Develop Project Charterprocess can EEFs provide?


What type of inputs to the Develop Project Charterprocess can OPAs provide?


Whatare typical sources of expert judgment?


Name several examples of facilitation techniques used byfacilitators to guide the development of the project charter?


Theproject charter is the document issued by the ___________ or ____________ thatformally authorizes the ___________ of aproject and provides the ______________ withthe ___________ to apply ___________ resources to project activities. municating

project initiator



project manager



The project charter documents the business __________, ___________,constraints, the ___________ of thecustomer’s _____________ and high-levelrequirements, and the new ___________,service, or __________ the project isintended to satisfy.







Whatis the key benefit of developing a project management plan?


Explain Figure 4-5. Develop Project Management Plan Data FlowDiagram in five grammatically correct sentences.


Theproject management plan defines how the project is _________, ___________ and __________,and closed.




Note how the similarities and differences betweenthe input EEFs and OPAs for the Develop Project Charter process and the DevelopProject Management Plan process. Also,note the specific items identified between the parentheses.


Whendeveloping the project management plan, expert judgment is used to ...


What are the three primary project baselines?

a. Scope baseline

b. Schedule baseline

c. Cost Baseline

Notehow all the project management plan integrates and consolidates ALL of thesubsidiary plans.


Amongother things, what other descriptions or elements can be included in theproject management plan?


Oncea project management plan is baselined, when is the only time it can bechanged?


Whatis the key benefit of the Direct and Manage Project Work process?


Whatare two (2) of your favorite activities associated with the Direct and ManageProject Work process?



Direct and Manage Project Work requires reviewof the impact of ALL project __________ andthe implementation of ___________ changes.



Describethe three [3] types of approved changes

a. Correctiveaction:

b. Preventiveaction:

c. Defectrepair:

Approvedchange requests are an output of the ____________________________ process, and include those requestsreviewed and approved for implementation by the ___________________.

Perform Integrated Change Control

change control board (CCB)

Theproject management information system (PMIS) provides ______________to tools, such as a __________ tool, a ____________________ system, a ________________ management system, an ___________ collection and ______________ system, or web interfaces to otheronline ___________ systems.



work authorization





Whatare the types of meetings you might find on a project?

a. Information exchange

b. Brainstorming

c. Decision making

A deliverable is any _____________ and _______________product, ___________ or ____________ to perform a service that is________________ to be produced to _________________ a process, _____________,or project


Deliverablesare typically ____________________ components completed to ______ the project________________ and can include _________________ of the project managementplan.


A change request is a formal proposal to_______________ any _____________, _________________, or ________________.


Requests for a change can be ____________ orindirect, _____________ or internally initiated, and can be ______________ orlegally/contractually mandated.


Project document updates may include thefollowing:





Whatis the key benefit of the Monitor and Control Project Work process?


Whatare two of your favorite things that the Monitor and Control Project Work isconcerned with?



Theschedule forecasts are derived from _______________ against the schedule_______________ and computed ____________ estimate to complete (ETC).


Scheduleprogress is typically expressed in terms of schedule __________ (____) andschedule ________________ ___________ (_____).


Costforecasts are derived from progress against the cost _____________ and computed_____________ to ____________ (_____).


Progressis typically expressed in terms of cost ____________ (___) and cost_______________ ___________ (____).


Why would a project manager want to compare theEAC with the BAC?


Why do approved changes that result from thePerform Integrated Change Control process require validation? What does this mean to the project manager?


Identify and briefly describe two of the many analyticaltechniques listed in



As a result of comparing _____________ results to_____________ results, change requests may be issued to ___________, _____________,or ___________ project scope, ___________ scope, or ____________ requirementsand schedule or ______________ baselines.


Changerequests may necessitate the ______________ and documentation of _______requirements. Changes can impact theproject management plan, project _______________, or ____________deliverables.


Changesthat meet the project’s change control _____________ should go through the____________ _____________ _____________ process established for the project.


Work performance reports are the physical orelectronic representation of work ________________ ___________ compiled inproject _____________, intended to generate __________________, _____________,or ______________.


Exampleof work performance reports include . . .


The Perform Integrated Change Control processreviews ALL ____________ for changes or ________________ to project documents,deliverables, ____________, or the project management plan AND ______________or ___________ the changes.


Whatis the key benefit of the Perform Integrated Change Control process?


The Perform Integrated Change Control process isconducted from project ____________ through ____________ and is the ultimate______________ of the project manager.


Changes may be requested by any ________________involved with the project.


What should happen to verbal changes?


Whatshould happen to every documented change request?


Brieflyexplain the difference between configuration control and change control.


Summarizethree [3] of the configuration management activities included in the PerformIntegrated Change Control process:

a. Configurationidentification

b. Configurationstatus accounting

c. Configurationverification and audit

In addition to the project management team’sexpert judgment, ________________ may be asked to provide their _______________and may be asked to sit on the _______________ _______________ _____________(____).


Perform Integrated Change Control meetings areusually referred to as ___________ ____________ meetings.


Identifyand briefly describe the four (4) outputs of the Perform Integrated ChangeControl process.





What is the key benefit of the Close Project orPhase processpan?


What should the project manager review prior toclosing a project? How does she/he do this?


TheClose Project or Phase process also establishes the ______________ toinvestigate and _____________ the reasons for actions taken if a project is________________ before _____________.


Brieflydescribe the three (3) step-by-step methodologies associated withadministrative closure of the project or phase.




What are the three (3) OPAs that are updated asa result of the Close Project or Phase process?




Project Scope Management includes the processesrequired to _______ that the project includes ALL the __________ required, andonly the ____________ required, to complete the project ____________. Managing the project scope is primarilyconcerned with __________________ and _______________ what is and what is not____________ in the project.


5.1 Plan ScopeManagement –The process of ______________ a __________ management plan that documents howthe project scope will be ___________, ____________, and controlled.





5.2 Collect Requirements –The process of ________________, documenting, and _____________ stakeholder needs and ______________ to meet project ____________.





5.3 Define Scope – The process of developing a _______________ description of the ________________ and_________________.




5.4 Create WBS – The process of ________________project _______________ and project ____________ into smaller, and more_______________ components.





5.5 Validate Scope – The process of _________________ acceptance of the completed project ________________.



5.6 Control Scope – The process of _________________ the status of the _______ and ______________ scope and managing ______________ to the scope baseline.





In the project context, what does the term scope refer to?

The term scope can refer to:

Product scope. The features and functions that characterize a product, service, or result and/or

Project scope. The work performed to deliver a product, service, or result with the specified features and functions.

The scope baseline for the project is the _______________ version of the project_______________ statement, work ______________ structure (WBS), and its associated ___________ dictionary.





When can a baseline only be changed?

baseline can be changed only through formal change control procedures

How is scope baseline used as a basis for comparison?

while performing Validate Scope and Control scope processes as well as other controlling processes.

How is the completion of the project scope measured?

Completion of the project scope is measured against the project management plan

How is the completion of the product scope measured?

Completion of the product scope is measured against the product requirements

What is the key benefit of the Plan Scope Management Process?

The key benefit of this process is that it provides guidance and direction on how scope will be managed throughout the proiect

The scope management plan describes how the scope will be ___________, developed, _____________, __________________ and verified.




What are some of the inputs that EEFs can provide to the Plan Scope Management process?

a. Organization's culture

b. Infrastructure

c. Personnef administration

e. Marktplace conditions

The scope management plan is a ____________input to the Develop ___________ Management Plan process, and the other___________ management processes.




Components of the scope management plan include:

a. Process for preparing a detailed project scope statement

b. Process that enables the creation of the WBS from the detailed project scope statement

c. Process that establishes now the WBS will be maintained and approved

d. Process that specifies how formal acceptance of the completed project deliverables will be obtained,

e. Process to control how requests for changes to the detailed project scope statement will be processed.

The requirements management plan describes__________ requirements will be ______________, ______________, and managed.




Note the components of the requirements management plan:

a. How requirements activities will be ___________, tracked, and ________.

b. Configure management _______________

c. Requirements_________________ process

d. Product______________ that will be used and the ____________ for using them.

e. Traceability__________________ to reflect which requirement ______________ will be_______________ on the traceability ________.

a. planned, reported

b. activities

c. prioritization

d. metrics, rationale

e. structure, attributes, captured, matrix

The key benefit of the Collect Requirements process is ….

Provides the basis for defining and managing the project's scope including product scope

What are the two things that directly influence a project’s success?

a) Active stakeholder involvement of transformation of needs into requirements

b) care taken in determining, documenting, and managing the requirements of product, service, or result of the project

Requirements include _______________ or___________________ that are to be met by the project or present in the product, service or ___________ to satisfy an _____________ or other imposed ______________.






Requirements become the foundation of the ____________.


The development of the requirements begins with an ________________ of the information contained in the project ______________, the _____________register, and the ________________ management plan.





Requirements can be grouped into _________________ allowing further _____________ and_____________ as the requirements are elaborated.




Note all the requirement classifications, but pick only two (2) of the classifications and briefly describe them in the space below:

a) Stakeholder requirement - describes needs of stakeholder or stakeholder group

b) Quality requirements - capture any condition needed to validate successful completion of a project.

In determining requirements, what information can interviews provide?

Aid in identifying and defining the features and functions of the desired product deliverables

In a facilitated workshop, why would you as a project manager want to use a quality function deployment (QFD) technique?

This creates info about stakeholder role, goals, and motivation, which can be leveraged for stakeholder management.

From those listed under paragraph, identify and briefly describe your favorite group creativity technique and provide a project-related example of its application.

Nominal group technique - enhances brainstorming by ranking most useful ideas for further brainstorming

Ex: Increase safety for field trips. Wide range and can be narrowed down

A group decision-making technique is an ____________________ process having_________________ alternatives with an expected _____________ in the form of future ___________. These techniques can be used to ______________, classify, and prioritize _____________ requirements.







List the four (4) identified methods of reaching a group decision:

a) Unanimity

b) Majority

c) Plurality

d) Dictatorship

As a project manager, what are three (3) reasons why you would want to use prototypes?

1) Allows stakeholders to experiment with product

2) Support concept of progressive elaboration

3) Feedback

What is storyboarding and in what industries would this technique typically be used?

Shows sequence or navigation through a series of images or illustrations.

film, advertising, instructional design, and software

Requirements documentation describes how__________________ requirements meet the _______________ need for theproject.



Componentsof requirements documentation can include:

a. __________________requirements

b. __________________requirements

c. __________________requirements

d. __________________requirements

e. __________________requirements

f. Requirements__________________, ______________, and ____________.


The requirements traceability matrix is a___________ that links _____________ requirements from their ______________ tothe ______________ that satisfy them.


What does the implementation of a requirementstraceability matrix help ensure?


Howdoes a risk traceability matrix provide a structure for managing changes to theproduct scope?


Whatare examples of the types of requirements that can be traced?


Attributes associated with each requirement canbe recorded in the traceability matrix. In the space below, identify typical attributes that may be associatedwith a single requirement.


What is the key benefit of the Define Scopeprocess?


Why are not all the requirements identified inthe Collect Requirements process included in the project?


Whathappens in the Define Scope process for an iterative life cycle project?


What six (6) techniques are normally associatedwith product analysis?







What are you trying to achieve when usingalternative generation?


In a facilitated workshop to help define scope, why isit important for key players to participate?


Theproject scope statement is the description of the project ___________, major__________________, ______________, and constraints. The project scope statement documents the_______________ scope, including ____________ and _______________ scope.


Whywould a project scope statement contain explicit scope exclusions?


Briefly summarize the six (6) sectionsnormally associated with the detailed project scope statement:







How is a Project Charter different from aProject Scope Statement?


What is the key benefit of the Create WBSprocess?


TheWBS is a __________________ ______________ of the total _______ of the work tobe carried out by the project ____________ to accomplish the project_____________ and create the required ________________.


TheWBS organizes and ___________ the total ___________ of the project, andrepresents the _________ specified in the current approved project ___________statement.


What are the lowest level of WBS componentscalled?


Brieflydescribe how the planned work is contained within the lowest level of WBScomponents?


What sort of input does the scope managementplan provide to the Create WBS process?


What sort of input do EEFs provide to the Create WBS process?


WhatOPAs can influence the Create WBS process?


Briefly describe the technique of decomposition.


The work package is the _______________ definedat the _____________ level of the WBS for which ___________ and ______________can be ____________ and managed.


Whatguides the level of decomposition?


Thelevel of detail for work packages will vary with the _____________ and__________ of the project.


Summarizethe five (5) activities normally associated with decomposition of the totalproject work into work packages:






Briefly describe three of the forms that can beused to represent a WBS.




The WBS may be structured as an _______________,an ________________ chart, or other method that identifies a___________________ breakdown.


Whatare the consequences of excessive decomposition?


Identifya situation when decomposition may not be possible.


TheWBS represents ALL ______________ and _______________ work, including theproject ________________ work.


Brieflydescribe the 100 percent rule.


Whatare the three components of the scope baseline?




The WBS dictionary is a document that provides_____________ deliverable, ______________, and __________________ informationabout each WBS component.


Whattypes of information may be included in the WBS dictionary?


What is the key benefit of the Validate Scopeprocess?


Briefly describe how the Validate Scope processdiffers from the Control Quality process?


How do verified deliverables provide input tothe Validate Scope process?


What is the key benefit of the Control Scope process?


Controlling the project scope ensures ALL_____________ changes and recommended _____________ or ______________ actionsare processed through the Perform _______________ _______________ Controlprocess.


ControlScope is also used to _____________ the ______________ changes when they occurand is[are] _______________ with the other ____________ processes.


Whatis scope creep?


Whyis some type of change control process mandatory for every project?


Why do well-documented requirements make iteasier to detect any deviation in the agreed upon scope for the project orproduct?


Briefly describe variance analysis?


Whatare project performance measurements used to assess?


Whatare two (2) important aspects of project scope control?



Workperformance information produced includes ________________ and__________________ information on how the project _____________ is performingcompared to the scope _____________.


What four (4) types of information can workperformance information include?





Identify two reasons why a Project ManagementPlan would be updated.



Asoutputs of the Control Scope process, what are three reasons why OPAs would beupdated?




6.1 Plan Schedule Management – The process of establishing the ___________,procedures, and ________________ for planning, _____________, managing,_________________ and __________________ the project schedule.


6.2 Define Activities – The process of identifying and ______________ thespecific __________________ to be performed to produce the project________________.


6.3 Sequence Activities – The process of _______________ and documenting____________________ among the _____________ activities.


6.4 Estimate Activity Resources – The process of estimating the ____________ and___________ of material, human ______________, equipment, or ____________required to perform each activity.


6.5 Estimate Activity Durations – The process of estimating the number of___________ periods needed to _____________ individual activities withestimated ___________.


6.6 Develop Schedule – The process of analyzing activity ______________,durations, _____________ requirements, and schedule ______________ to createthe project schedule model.


6.7 Control Schedule – The process of monitoring the status of project___________ to ____________ project _______________ and manage ____________ tothe schedule baseline to achieve the plan.


A schedule model is a _______________________ ofthe plan for ____________ the project’s activities including ___________,dependencies, and other _____________ information, used to produce project_____________ along with other scheduling artifacts.


The key benefit of the PlanSchedule Management process is …


The schedule management plan defines howschedule _____________________ will be ____________ and _______________. Theschedule management plan may be updated to reflect a ___________ in the way the______________ is managed.


What forms of input can theEEFs influence the Plan Schedule Management process?


As inputs to the PlanSchedule Management process, what inputs can the OPAs provide?


In looking at analytical techniques, the PlanSchedule Management process may involve choosing _______________ options to_____________ and ___________ the project such as: scheduling_________________, scheduling ___________ and ____________, estimating____________, formats and project management _____________. The schedule management plan may also detailways to ________ _______ or crash the project _______________ such as______________ work in ___________.


As acomponent of the project management plan, the schedule management plan____________________ the ________________ and the activities for_______________, monitoring, and _____________ the schedule.


What does the schedulemanagement plan establish?










How does the schedule management plan establishthe project schedule model development?


How does the schedule management plan establishrules of performance measurement?


What is the key benefit ofthe Define Activities process?


Work packages are typically decomposed intosmaller _____________ called __________ that represent the ___________ effortrequired to complete the work ______________.


What is the basis for the final activity list?


What is rolling wave planning?


As an output of the DefineActivities process, the activity list is a ______________ list that includesALL ______________ activities required on the ______________.


Describe the three (3)things associated with each activity in the activity list?

a. Activity identifier

b. Scope of work description

c. Unique title

How are activities different from milestones?


Activity attributes ___________ the descriptionof each activity by ______________ the multiple ________________ associatedwith each activity.


Briefly describe how the components for eachactivity evolve over time.


What can the activityattributes be used to identify?


A milestone is a_________________ point or ___________ in a project.


A milestone list is a listof ALL project milestones and indicates whether the milestone is________________ or __________________.


Why do milestones have zero duration?