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23 Cards in this Set

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What is the Role of the Phlebotomist in Non-blood specimens?
- Obtaining the specimen

- Test administration

- Collection Instructions

- Labeling and transporting specimens in the laboratory
How specimens are properly labeled?
The laboratory request slip must accompany the specimen
- The patient’s name

- The patient’s identification number

- The date

- The time of collection

- **The type of specimen

- The attending physician’s name

- **The label should be affixed on the container, not the lid.
What are some urinalysis tests?
1.Physical analysis
(color, clarity, odor, specific gravity)

2. Chemical analysis w/ dipstick

3. Microscopic exam
- normal vs. abnormal cells
- bacteria present
- parasites present
What are types of urine collection?
1. Random: (any time of day, no cleansing needed)

2. First morning: (most conc., no cleansing needed)

3. Midstream urine

4. Clean Catch Midstream
(used to detect infecting organisms; cleansing needed)

5. Timed: sample collected at specific time.
What is the transportation procedure for urine samples?
Transportation
- to the UA section promptly for analysis within 2 hours after the patient voids.

- if not possible --> the urine should be refrigerated.
What are the time requirement for other body fluids?
ALL BODY FLUIDS ARE TREATED AS STATS
What is the order to collect CSF specimens?
Tube #1 = Chemistry (contaminated with blood and tissue)

Tube #2 = Microbiology (least contaminated)

Tube #3 = hematology

Tube #4 = Miscellaneous tests
How is CSF obtained and what is it used for?
Obtained by spinal tap or lumbar puncture.

CSF collected for FUO or to rule out meningitis
(
Specimen should not be frozen)
What is joint fluid (AKA synovial fluid) used for?
- Viscous fluid
- Sent to rule out infection or determine arthritic involvement
Where is Peritoneal/Ascites fluid obtained?
- Drainage from the abdominal area

- Usually sent in liter containers
Where is Pericardial fluid obtained?
Fluid taken from around the heart
Where is Pleural Fluid obtained?
Fluid from the lung cavity
What are bronchial washings used for?
Usually sent microbiology and cytology.
What are reasons for amniotic fluid collection?
- Detect fetal lung maturity

- Fetal abnormalities can be detected through chromosomal analysis and chemical tests.

- (The specimen must be protected from light and transported immediately)
Where is Sputum obtained?
Fluid from the lungs containing pus
What are types of tests done on stool specimens?
-fat

-Intestinal parasites (Q&P)

-Cultured for pathogenic bacteria

-Tested for occult blood.
what are patients told to do when obtaining stool samples?
- Avoid urination of sample b/c urine kills bacteria.

- Clean outside of container

- properly sealed.
what is occult blood and what is it used for:?
Occult blood is blood in the feces

- confirmation of the presence of blood in black stools

- detecting gastrointestinal (GI) tract lesions and colorectal cancer.

- (Feces for occult blood tests are often collected by the patient using special test cards, such as ColoScreen-ES)
What are reasons to collect semen samples?
- Determine the effectiveness of a vasectomy

- Investigate the possibility of sexual criminal charges

- Assess fertility

- (Collected in containers similar to sterile urine containers; should be kept warm and transported fast within 2 hrs)
How are gastric secretion collected?
- The test involves passing a tube through the patient’s nose (intubating) and into the stomach

- The stomach (gastric) contents are emptied through a gastric tube.

- Then histamine (a stimulant) is injected into the patient.

- 5 minutes later, the stomach contents are emptied and tested for acidity.

- The procedure may be repeated several times.
How are throat cultures obtained and what are they used for?
- determine the presence of streptococcal infections (step throat)

- have patient open mouth wide

- touch sterile cotton swab to back of throat or inflammed area.

- place swab in a special transport medium.

- streaked on agar for bacterial culture
What are reasons to collect nasopharyngeal cultures?
Collection of nasopharyngeal cultures.
- Often performed to detect carrier states of:
Neisseria meningitidis

Corynebacterium diphtheriae

Streptococcus pyogenes

Haemophilus influenzae

Staphylococcus aureus.
What are sweat chloride used for and how are they obtained?
- Diagnosis of cystic fibrosis.

- Produce sweat chloride at two to five times normal level

- obtained by Iontophoresis