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94 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the 5 divisions of the brain from top to bottom?
Telencephalon
Diencephalon
Mesencephalon
Metencephalon
Myelencephalon
What are the 3 layers of the meninges and what is different about each?
Dura mater ("hard mother") - outermost protective layer

Arachnoid membrane - spongy, spider-like web of tissue; Subarachnoid space - contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and arteries

Pia mater - delicate, innermost membrane
What is the difference between grey matter and white matter?
Grey - nerve cell bodies (somas of neurons)

White - fiber bundles of neurons - white b/c of fatty myelin sheath
What divides the 2 hemispheres?
Media longitudinal fissure
What do the superior colliculi do?

Where are they?
Processes some simple aspects of visual stimuli.


Found in the tectum of the midbrain above the IC
What do the inferior colliculi do?

Where are they?
Processes some simple aspects of auditory stimuli.


Found in the tectum of the midbrain below the SC
What does the cerebellum do?

Where is it?
Critical for motor functioning, movements requiring aim and timing (e.g. finger to nose), coordinates w/vestibular system for balance (ex. when drunk can't walk heel-to-toe), some learning functions
Where is the Pons and what does it do?
Relays sensory information from cerebellum to cortex, contains reticular formation.

Found on the brainstem
What does the reticular formation do?
Important for general arousal (respiration centers, muscle tone, heart rate, etc.)
What does the medulla do? Where is it?
Long, narrow structure (hence oblongata), controls autonomic functions such as breathing, heart rate, etc.
What structures make up the brain stem?
Together, the pons and medulla are sometimes called the brainstem.
What does the frontal lobe do?

Where is it?
Sensory and motor functions, higher-order cognitive processes in humans

Prefrontal cortex - receives input from all sensory modalities, is involved with planning, decision making, personality, impulse control, emotion

Found at the rostral end of cortex
What does the parietal lobe do?

Where is it?
Somatic (body) sensations, spatial orientation, face recognition

Superior part of cortex
What does the occipital lobe do?

Where is it?
Vision

Most caudal part of cortex
What does the temporal lobe do?

Where is it
Learning, memory, hearing - contains primary auditory cortex, complex aspects of sight (e.g., face recognition in fusiform gyrus)

Most inferior part of cortex
What does the pituitary gland do?

Where is it? (hint: dura matter)
synthesizes and releases hormones

Found between the trigeminal nerves on the inferior part of brain
What do the cerebral peduncles do?

Where are they?
motor system fibers from cerebral cortex that project to the brainstem areas and to spinal cord

Found inferior, anterior to pons
Point to the anterior/rostral and posterior/caudal directions of the brain?
Anterior/rostral - toward the nose end

Posterior/caudal - toward the tail end
Point to the dorsal and ventral parts of the brain?
dorsal - toward the surface of the back and top of the head;

ventral - toward the surface of the chest or bottom of the head
Explain medial vs lateral.
medial - toward the midline of the body;

lateral - away from the midline of the body
Explain superior vs. inferior
superior - toward the top of the brain or above another structure;

inferior - toward the bottom of the brain or below another structure
How many pairs of cranial nerves are there?
12

(On Old Olympus’ Towering Tops, A Friendly Viking Grew Vines And Hops)

(Some Say Money Matters, But My Brother Says Big “Brains” Matter Most)
What is the optic chiasm?

Where is it?
The place where the nerve becomes the tract; where 50% of the nerves cross over (in humans)
What is the difference between optic nerve and optic tract?
The optic nerve is before (anterior) the chiasm and the tract is after (posterior). In general nerves are outside the brain and part of the PNS, whereas tracts are inside the brain and part of the CNS.
Olfactory bulb:

What #?

Motor, sensory, or both?

What does it do?

Where is it?
# - 1

Sensory

Smell

Projects from the olfactory bulbs
Optic nerve:

What #?

Motor, sensory, or both?

What does it do?

Where is it?
# - II

Sensory

Vision

projects from optic chiasm
Oculomotor:

What #?

M/S/B?

What does it do?

Where is it?
# - III

Motor

Control of eye movements, pupil constriction

Projects from cerebral peduncles
Trochlear:

What #?

M/S/B?

What does it do?

Where is it?
# - IV

Motor

Control of eye movements, rolling outward and downward

Projects in between pons and cerebellum laterally
Trigeminal:

What #?

M/S/B?

What does it do?

Where is it?
# - V

Sensory & Motor

Touch and pain sensations from most of the face; Control of jaw muscles for chewing and swallowing, hot pepper taste

Biggest nerves found lateral to pituitary gland (YELLOW)
Abducens:

What #?

S/M/B?

What does it do?

Where is it?
# - VI.

Motor

Control of eye movements, side to side

Projects in between pons and medulla (GREEN)
Facial:

What #?

M/S/B?

What does it do?

Where is it?
# - VII. (7)

Sensory & Motor

Control of muscles of the face (facial expression, crying); Taste for anterior 2/3rd of tongue
Stratoacoustic / Vesibulochochlear:

What #?

M/S/B?

What does it do?
# - VIII (8)

Sensory

Hearing and equilibrium
Glossopharyngeal:

What #?

M/S/B?

What does it do?
# - IX. (9)

Sensory & Motor

Taste/sensation for throat and posterior 1/3rd of tongue; Control gag reflex and throat movements during speech
Vagus:

What #?

M/S/B?

What does it do?
# - 10

Sensory & Motor

Sensations from neck & throat; sensations and motor control of many internal organs including heart, lungs and stomach.
Spinal accessory:

What #?

S/M/B?

What does it do?

Where is it?
# - XI. (11)

Motor

Control of neck and shoulder muscles for turning movements of the head

Runs laterally to brain stem
Hypoglossal:

What #?

M/S/B?

What does it do?
# - XII (12)

Motor

Control of the muscles of the tongue
What is the difference between afferent and efferent?
Afferent - going toward the CNS - afferent nerves carry sensory info from skin, skeletal muscles, joints, eyes, ears, viscera, and so on to CNS; think of "a" as "approach", "arrive" - coming into CNS - sensory

Efferent - going away from the CNS - carry motor signals from the CNS to the skeletal muscles and viscera think of "e" as "exit" - going away from the CNS - motor
Midsaggital View

Where is the Cingulate Gyrus?
Above the corpus callosum.
What is the Thalamus?

Where is it?
Sensory relay system of the brain, sending information primarily to the cortex

Circular structure superior to hypothalamus
What is the Hypothalamus?

Where is it?
Controls autonomic & endocrine (hormone) system; the 4 F's - feeding, fighting, fleeing, and fornicating; connects with pituitary for appetite

Inferior to thalamus, superior to optic chiasm
What is the Pineal body?

Where is it?
Aka - Pineal gland - responsible for secreation of melatonin - a hormone which, among other things, induces sleep

Rostral to tectum
Where are the Superior Colliculi?
where
Where are the Inferior Colliculi?
where
Where is the Cerebellum?
where
What is the Corpus Callosum?

Where is it?
Band of white matter by which each cerebral hemisphere connects with the opposite cerebral hemisphere (allows for communication between the two)

Inferior to cingulate gyrus
Midsagittal View

What is the Septum Pellucidum?

Where is it?
A thin layer of tissue that separates the two lateral ventricles from each other.

Medial portion of lateral ventricles
Midsagittal View

What is the Fornix?

Where is it?
Band of white matter by which the hippocampus of each hemisphere connects to the hippocampus of the opposite hemisphere

Inferior to lateral ventricles
Midsagittal View

What is the Arbor Vitae?

Where is it?
"Tree of life"; white nerve tissue of the cerebellum, has a tree-like outline.
Midsagittal View

Where is the Medulla?
where
Midsagittal View

Where is the Pons?
where

Pons bulges out at the bottom and medulla oblongates from it
Midsagittal View

What is the Ventral Tegmental Area?
Considered part of the pleasure system, or reward circuit. Activities which produce pleasure, such as psycho-stimulant drugs, activate this area
Midsagittal View

What is the Substantia Nigra?
A layer of nerve cells in the midbrain that produce the neurotransmitter dopamine. One of the movement control centers of the brain. Also involved in addiction. Its destruction is seen in Parkinson's Disease.
Midsagittal View

Where are the Lateral ventricles?
Two large empty spaces directly inferior to the corpus callosum
Midsagittal View

Where is the 3rd ventricle?
Hollow space directly inferior to the fornix.
Midsagittal View

Where is the 4th Ventricle?
Hollow space directly inferior to the cerebellum
Midsagittal View

What is the Cerebral Aqueduct?

Where is it?
Short canal traveling through the midbrain; connects the 3rd and 4th ventricles

Found inferior to the IC
Coronal View

What is The Limbic System?
A circuit of midline structures that circle the thalamus (limbic means "ring") - has several functions including motivating behaviors, learning, and memory
Coronal View

What is the function of the Thalamus?

Where is it?
located in the diencephalon, below the 3rd ventricles,

heart shaped; both process and relay sensory information selectively to various parts of the cerebral cortex regulating states of sleep and wakefulness; involved with consciousness; major role in regulating arousal, the level of awareness, and activity. Damage to the thalamus can lead to permanent coma; should see in the 3rd slice.
Coronal View

What is the function of the amygdala?
Involved in visceral and autonomic responses, sexuality, food and water intake; also involved in emotions, emotional memories, fear, aggression, and pleasure
Coronal View

What is the function of the hippocampus?

Where is it?
Involved in spatial memory (ex. put a rat into a maze, learns the mase, then lesion HC - after lesion can't remember how to get through maze); formation of new episodic memories; temporal information: dates, times, appointments, schedules, etc.; should see in the 3rd slice

Seahorse structure in 3rd slice
Coronal View

What is the septal nuclei responsible for?

What happens if there is damage?

Where is it?
Connects with hippocampus, hypothalamus, amygdala, thalamus, and some structures in the midbrain; Role in reward and reinforcement along with nucleus accumbens; damage in humans can result in rage behavior and other strange behaviors; should see in the 1st slice

Lighter area inside septum; seen in 1st slice
Coronal View

What are the mammillary bodies responsible for?

What disease are they associated with?
Play a role in memory; Korsakoff's syndrome - amnesia resulting from severe alcoholism
Coronal View

What does the Basil Ganglia do?
Set of structures that play a major role in voluntary motor responses; sends motor messages thalamus and midbrain --> cortex --> medulla and spinal cord; also responsible for procedural memory
Coronal View

What is the caudate nucleus responsible for?

Where is it?
Responsible for learning and memory, specifically in receiving feedback; theorized that it is involved with OCD; found to function when falling in love; should see in 2nd and 3rd slices

Gray area medial to the internal capsule in slices 2 and 3
Coronal View

What is the putamen responsible for?

Where is it?
Involved in reinforcement learning and implicit learning; found to play a role in the perception of hate; should see in 2nd and 3rd slices

Gray area lateral to internal capsule in slices 2 and 3
Coronal View

What 2 structures make up the striatum?
Caudate nucleus and Putamen
Coronal View

What does the globus pallidus do?
plays an active part in pre-filtering external stimuli and may help reduce the amount of irrelevant information the brain can store.
Coronal View

Explain what Parkinson's disease is and what causes it.
A disorder characterized by rigidity of muscles, resting tremors, and impairment of speech; results from deterioration of pathway from substantia nigra (midbrain structure) to the basal ganglia causing low levels of dopamine.
Coronal View

Where is the fornix?
Should see in the 2nd and 3rd slices.

Corpus callosum is above the lateral ventricles which are above the fornix
Coronal View

What is the corona radiate?

Where is it?
The radiating white matter of the neocortex carry nearly all of the neural traffic from and to the cerebral cortex. Should see in all 3 slices.
Coronal View

Where is the corpus callosum?
Should see in all 3 slices


Corpus callosum is above the lateral ventricles which are above the fornix
Coronal View

What is the internal capsule?

Where is it?
White matter surrounding subcortical structures; corona radiata --> internal capsule --> cerebral peduncle; runs between the caudate and putamen at some points; should see in 1st and 2nd slices.

runs between the caudate and putamen at some points; should see in slices 2 and 3
Coronal View

Where is the media longitudinal fissure?
should see in all 3 slices.

superior medial space between hemispheres
Coronal View

Where is the cingulate gyrus?
Should see in all 3 slices.

“fox ears” above corpus callosum
Coronal View

Where are the lateral ventricles?
Should see in all 3 slices.

Lateral ventricles - all 3 slices; superior ventricles; inferior to corpus callosum
Coronal View

Where is the 3rd ventricle?
Should see in the 2nd and 3rd slices.

3rd ventricle – 2nd and 3rd slices; inferior to fornix
Coronal View

Where is the pineal body (pineal gland)?
Should see in the 3rd slice.

Center of 3rd cut
Inferior to 3rd ventricle
Eye Ball

What is the sclera and where is it?
White protective covering of the eyeball (except cornea) - an extension of the dura mater.
What is the optic nerve and where is it (on the eye, not the brain)?
Carries visual information to the brain

carries visual information to the brain, extending from the ganglion cells of the retina
What is the nictitating membrane?

Where is it?
Sheep and other animals it is a third eyelid; controlled by the abducens nerve

Eyelid on the side, has a dark edge
Eye Ball

What is the conjunctiva?

Swelling causes what?
Delicate membrane that starts at the junction of the sclera and the cornea; lines inside of eyelid and provides lubrication; conjunctivitis = swelling of conjuctiva from infrection (aka pink eye)
Eye Ball

What is the cornea?

Where is it?
Area of the eye anterior to the iris; transparent protective covering; some accommodation occurs
Eye Ball

What is the iris and where is it?
colored part of the eye; surrounds the pupil - orange on sheep
Eye Ball

What is the pupil?
Hole in the iris controlled by muscles; it widens and narrows to allow the needed amount of light into the eye; controlled by the oculomotor nerve; failure to constrict to light indicates a concussion
What is the lens and where is it?
Transmits and refracts light to focus images near or far (accomodation) usually transparent
Eye Ball

What are the ciliary bodies?
controls the suspensory ligaments which adjust the shape of the lens; there are also epithelium cells here that secrete the aqueous humor.
Eye Ball

What is the aqueous humor?
liquid found in the anterior chamber of the eye; secreted and removed as waste.
Eye Ball

What is the vitreous body/humor and where is it?
gel-like substance on the inside of the eyeball; gives support and shape.
Eye Ball

What is the retina and where is it?
the neural tissue containing photoreceptive cells located on the inner surface of the posterior portion of the eye.
Eye Ball

What is the macula?
The portion of the retina with the highest ability to resolve visual detail. The site of macular degeneration.
Eye Ball

What is the fovea?
Center of the macula, made up only of cones; mediates find detail and color, the most acute vision
Eye Ball

What is the blind spot and where is it?
location of the exit point from the retina of the fibers of the ganglion cells that form the optic nerve, blood vessels also exit the eye here; no photoreceptors
Eye Ball

What is the choroid and where is it?
black substance of the back of the eyeball; behind the retina; absorbs any stray light; vascular layer
Eye Ball

What is the tapetum lucidum and where is it?
blue-green iridescent membrane on back of sheep eye; reflective structure acts like a mirror, reflecting light back through the retina, allowing for better night vision.