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140 Cards in this Set

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What experience is similar to losing proprioception?
walking on a leg that has fallen asleep
Which of the following is an example of a ballistic movement?
a reflexive knee movement
Compared to a long distance runner, a world class sprinter probably has more of which kind of fibers in her legs?
fast-twitch
After motor neurons fire a few times in quick succession, subsequent action potentials release:
less acetylcholine
What are the differences among the three types of skeletal muscle found in fish (red, pink, and white)?
both speed of contraction and susceptibility to fatigue
What condition is improved by increasing the presence of acetylcholine in the synapse?
myesthenia gravis
Moving a leg or arm back and forth requires opposing sets of muscles called:
antagonistic muscles
Which of the following is an example of a motor program in chickens with featherless wings?
flapping its wing if suddenly dropped
A tap on the knee just below the kneecap will elicit extension of the knee. This reflex indicates that:
muscle spindles have been streched
You have precise control over the movement of your fingers, probably because:
they have few muscle fibers per motor neuron
Which of the following behaviors would most likely result from activity of central pattern generators?
a dog shaking itself off to dry
What happens when a fish swims at low temperatures?
the fish swims at its usual speed but fatigues more rapidly
Closing your eyes and sneezing in response to suddenly seeing a bright light is an example of:
an allied reflex
A fish will adjust to lower water temperatures by:
recruiting different muscle fibers
A Golgi tendon organ responds to:
increases in muscle tension
What type of muscle controls movements of internal organs?
smooth
Slow and continuous stretching exercises could relax a muscle by:
stretching the golgi tendon organs
Cardiac muscles have properties:
intermediate, between those of smooth and skeletal
What is the stimulus for the rooting reflex?
touching the cheek near the mouth
Which muscle is "antagonistic" to a flexor muscle in the right arm?
an extensor muscle in the right arm
A boxer’s ability to sense the position of his arm and hand before planning a punch is dependent on the sense of:
proprioception
A motor program is a:
a fixed sequence of motions that, once triggered, will continue until completion
Which of the following are two kinds of proprioceptors?
muscle spindles and golgi tendon organs
A proprioceptor is:
sensitive to the position and movement of a part of a body
Symptoms of myasthenia gravis include:
weakness and rapid fatigue of skeletal movements
Axons release ____ at junctions with skeletal muscles.
acetylcholine
Which of the following is an example of a motor program in a human?
yawning
Compared to the average weekend jogger, a world class marathon runner probably has a higher percentage of which kind of fibers in his legs?
slow-twitch
When an axon releases a transmitter at the nerve-muscle junction, the response of the muscle is to:
always contract
The role of the Golgi tendon organs is to:
prevent extreme muscle contractions
What type of muscle controls movements of the heart?
cardiac
Vigorous use of fast-twitch fibers results in fatigue because the process is:
anaerobic
A muscle spindle responds to the:
stretch of the muscle
A ballistic movement:
proceeds immediately after it has been triggered
What is the relationship between the motor neuron axons and muscle fibers?
the fewer muscles a single axon innervates the more precise the movements
If a neurologist tests an adult patient for infant reflexes, the neurologist is probably trying to determine whether the person has suffered damage to the:
cerebral cortex
What is the stimulus for the Babinski reflex?
stroking the sole of the foot
The eye muscles can be moved with greater precision than the biceps muscles because the:
eye muscles have a lower ratio of muscle fibers to axons
Myasthenia gravis is caused by:
damage to acetylcholine receptors at neuromuscular junctions
Early in the course of aerobic exercises such as dancing, glucose is used by the muscles. As exercise continues,:
muscles decrease their use of glucose
What type of muscle is responsible for the movement of your body through the environment?
striated
If a new species were found with legs composed almost completely of fast-twitch muscles, what could we infer about its behavior?
it could chase prey over short distances
The absence of acetylcholine will cause a muscle to?
relax
A contraction of equal force in antagonist muscles of the arm would result in ____ of the arm.
no movement
Exercising at a high altitude where there is less oxygen is most likely to affect:
slow-twitch muscles
A sudden stretch of a muscle excites a feedback system that opposes the stretch. This message starts in the:
muscle spindles
Which would be especially important when running up a flight of stairs at full speed?
fast-twitch muscles
Central pattern generators:
contribute to rythmic patterns of movement
Infants have several reflexes like the ____ and the ____, that are not seen in healthy adults.
rooting reflex; Babinski reflex
What is the name given to the synapse where a motor neuron's axon meets a muscle fiber?
neuromuscular junction
The premotor cortex:
is active during preparations for a movement and less active during movement itself.
Cells in the prefrontal cortex, premotor cortex, and ____ prepare for a movement, sending messages to the primary motor cortex.
supplementary motor cortex
Paths from the cerebral cortex to the spinal cord are called the:
corticospinal tracts
Most of the axons of the ventromedial tract go to which side of the body?
bilateral
Damage to one side of the dorsolateral tract below the level of the medulla would most likely affect:
fine motor control of the same side of the body
After damage to the cerebellar cortex, an individual has trouble with which part of the finger-to-nose test?
the initial rapid movement to the nose
People with damage to the parietal cortex appear to lack ____ related to voluntary movements
feelings of intention
Longer stimulation (1/2 sec) of the arm region of a monkey's motor cortex results in:
a fixed outcome using different muscle movements depending on the initial position of the arm
The part of the cortex which responds mostly to the sensory signals that lead to a movement is the
prefrontal cortex
People with posterior parietal damage:
have trouble converting sensation into action
People with posterior parietal damage:
will not step over an obstacle, although they can accurately describe it.
In a study, functional MRI measured cerebellar activity. It was found that the cerebellum was quite active when individuals:
felt objects with both hands to determine if they were the same
Which of the following would most likely happen with damage to the prefrontal cortex?
poorly planned movements
The prefrontal cortex:
responds to lights, noises, and other signals for a movement
Purkinje cells are
flat cells in sequential planes
Inaccurate saccades indicate damage to the:
cerebellum
Movements near the midline of the body, such as bending and turning of the trunk, are controlled by which motor system?
ventromedial tract
What is the relationship between the dorsolateral tract and the ventromedial tract?
most movements rely on both, which work in a cooperative fashion
Purkinje cells receive most of their input from:
parallel fibers of the cerebellar cortex
The dorsolateral tract cross over point is in the:
pyramids of the medulla
The posterior parietal cortex
keeps track of the position of the body relative to the world
In contrast to people with posterior parietal damage, people with damage to the visual ventral stream but sparing the primary visual cortex:
cannot accurately describe what they see but can reach out to grasp it.
Which basal ganglia structure(s) is(are) important for receiving input from sensory areas of the thalamus and the cerebral cortex?
caudate nucleus and putamen
The structure composed of the caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus is the:
basal ganglia
The supplementary motor cortex becomes active
during the second or two prior to movement
Just thinking about the intention to put your arm around your attractive date would activate which of the following motor areas?
supplementary cortex
Watching another person shoot a basketball is most likely to activate ____ neurons in the brain of the person who is watching.
mirror
Children with ____ were found to have less activity in the brain areas believed to contain mirror neurons
autism
In an important study on voluntary movement, people made a voluntary movement and later reported the exact time when they became aware of the conscious decision to move. The order of events, in time, was:
activity in premotor cortex, then conscious decision, then movement
The tract that includes many axons from the primary motor cortex, the reticular formation, and the vestibular nucleus is the:
ventromedial tract
With experience, the motor skills required to drive a car become more automatic over time mostly because of changes in the:
basal ganglia
The nuclei of the cerebellum (as opposed to the cerebellar cortex) are most important in
holding a finger in a steady position
Dorsolateral tract axons are responsible for movements in the:
arms, hands, and toes
Speaking, piano playing, athletic skills, and other rapid movements would be most impaired by damage to which structure?
cerebellum
The symptoms of cerebellar damage resemble those of:
intoxication
A quick typist would rely heavily on the ____ cortex to organize smooth sequences of finger movements.
supplementary
The motor cortex produces a kind of activity called a ____ before any voluntary movement.
readiness potential
Very brief electrical stimulation of the motor cortex results in
muscle twitching
Axons of the dorsolateral tract extend to what area?
spinal cord
What is the name of the rapid eye movement occurring when a person moves his or her eyes from one focus point to another?
saccade
Which widely branching cells are responsible for all of the output from the cerebellar cortex to the nuclei of the cerebellum?
Perjinke cells
Cerebellum is to ____ as basal ganglia are to ____.
timing; voluntary movement
Patients with damage to the cerebellum are impaired at ____ movements, but relatively normal in making ____ movements.
imagining; continuous
the greater the number of Purkinje cells activated, the:
greater the collective duration of the response.
The basal ganglia work together to initiate movement by:
ceasing to inhibit movement
In order to elicit movement, the motor cortex:
sends axons to the brainstem and spinal cord.
If you have trouble with rapid, ballistic movement sequences that require accurate timing, you probably have suffered damage to the:
cerebellum
The cerebellum appears to be critical for:
certain aspects of attention
Most of the output from the globus pallidus to the thalamus releases?
GABA
Most of the axons of the dorsolateral tract go to which side of the body?
contralateral
Cigarette smoking and coffee drinking ____ the risk of Parkinson’s disease, and marijuana ____ the risk.
decrease; increases
What is especially limited in a patient with Huntington's disease?
the ability to learn and improve new movements
Which of the following is a limitation of using L-dopa for Parkinson's disease?
it does not prevent continued loss of dopamine neurons
What is a common symptom of Huntington's disease?
twitching, trembling and writhing that interfere with voluntary movement
A loss of dopamine activity leads to ____ stimulation of the motor cortex and ____ onset of movements.
less; slower
What is the effect of MPTP?
it kills the neurons that release dopamine
L-Dopa, a common treatment for Parkinson's disease, is a drug that:
increases the brain's production of dopamine
What is the usual age of onset for Huntington's disease?
30-50yrs
Although Parkinson's disease is usually limited to old people, it has occurred in a small number of young people that:
used a designer drug
Symptoms of Parkinson's disease emerge only after the number of neurons in the substantia nigra decreases to what level?
less than 20% of the original total
The presymptomatic test for Huntington's disease enables one to predict not only who will get the disease but also:
the approximate age of onset
Immature cells that are capable of developing into a variety of cells are known as:
stem cells
It is believed that exposure to herbicides and pesticides is:
a contributing factor in some cases of Parkinson's disease.
Parkinson's disease is caused by degeneration of a pathway of neurons that releases which neurotransmitter?
dopamine
Early symptoms of Huntington's disease usually include:
jerky arm movements and body tremors
What characteristic of L-dopa makes it an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease?
L-dopa can cross the blood brain barrier
In its normal form, part of the gene which controls Huntington's disease repeats its sequence of bases:
between approximately 11-24 times
L-dopa is most effective:
in the early and intermediate stages of parkinson's disease
Having an identical twin with Parkinson's disease greatly increases the other twin's likelihood of also getting Parkinson's disease if the:
first twin had early-onset Parkinson's disease.
What is the most common drug in the treatment for Parkinson's disease?
L-dopa
Which of the following is TRUE of Huntington's disease?
the earlier the onset the more rapid the deterioration
What is the relationship of genetics to Huntington's disease?
it is caused by a dominant gene on chromosome 4
Which of the following can be used as a presymptomatic test for Huntington's disease?
examination of chromosome 4
The gene for Huntington's disease codes for a protein called
huntingin
Many of the symptoms of Parkinson's disease apparently relate to:
loss of arousal in the cortex
As an option for treating Parkinson’s patients, transplantation of stem cells appears to be:
modestly effective, as with other treatments
Which parts of the brain deteriorate most strongly in Huntington's disease?
the caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus
Which of the following is NOT true of Huntington's disease?
it is generally treated with L-dopa
Parkinson's disease patients, who usually have trouble walking, can walk surprisingly well when they:
are following a parade
If Parkinson's disease were caused primarily by exposure to herbicides and pesticides, we should expect to find:
near epidemics in some geographical regions
One thing that many different causes of Parkinson’s disease share in common is that they:
cause damage to the mitochondria
What is one of the main symptoms of Parkinson's disease?
Difficulty initiating movements
Which of the following is NOT common in people with Parkinson's disease?
outbursts of emotions
One effect of an abnormal form of the protein huntingtin on neurons is to:
prevent the release of BDNF
Transplanting brain tissue into Parkinson's patients would most likely be successful if:
the transplant was accompanied by neurotrophins.
The immediate cause of Parkinson's disease is the:
gradual, progressive death of neurons in the substantia nigra.
The reason why a dopamine pill is ineffective for treating Parkinson's disease is that:
dopamine does not cross the blood brain barrier
The psychological disorders that accompany Huntington's disease could be mistaken for which of the following?
schizophrenia
In Parkinson's disease, which pathway in the brain degenerates?
substantia nigra to caudate nucleus and putamen
Most Parkinson's patients suffer depression:
as one of the symptoms of the disease