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98 Cards in this Set

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The electromagentic waves having the highest speed in free spaces?

None. Gamma, light, and radio waves all have the same speed.

The smallest portion of the elctromagnetic spectrum is?

visible light

What are materials that clearly transmit visible light?

transparent

What are the principle differences between a radio wave and light? Between an x-ray?

Radio waves have a lower frequency and longer wavelength than visible light. Light waves have lower frequency and longer wavelength than x-rays.

If an atom is excited, what has it boosted?

Electrons

What is the energy of a photon directly proportional to?

Frequency. Energy of photon = frequency.

What is the energy level of an outer shell compared to the inner shells?

The outer shells have a higher energy level.

How does the energy of a photon relate to energy levels?

The difference between energy levels is equal to the energy of the photon.

Which has the higher frequency: red or blue light? Which has the great energy per photon: red or blue light?

Blue light has a higher frequency than red.


Blue light has a greater energy per photon than red.

Which puts out the greater percentage of its energy as visible light: an incandescent lamp or a mercury vapor lamp? How is the remaining non-visible light energy emitted?

Mercury vapor lamp puts out a greater amount of energy as visible light.


Incandescent lamps emit more light in the infrared

what is h in the equation, E=hf

h is the proportionality constant

what does a photon act as when traveling?

a wave

what compromises the least radiation in our everyday environment

nuclear power plants

Which of these ejects into the atmosphere the greatest amount of dangerous radiation?

coal fired power plants

If a certain isotope has a radioactive half-life or 10 yrs, how much of the isotope will remain at the end of 20 yrs?

quarter life

An element that undergoes radioactive decay becomes?

An entirely different element

Carbon 14 in the atmosphere is transformed from?

Nitrogen

All of the uranium in today’s deposits in the future will become?

Lead

What kind of force pushes particles in the atomic nucleus apart?

Electric Force

The energy released by nuclear fission is in accord with the celebrated equation?

E=mc^2

Which element cannot produce energy by fission of fusion?

Iron

Which body glows with electromagnetic waves?

sun, earth, people

Waves emitted by the sun and terrestrial wave emissions are?

The same except for their frequencies and wavelengths

The planet Earth loses heat primarily by?

radiation

Glass in a florist’s greenhouse acts as a one-way valve in that it?

High frequency light comes in, and low frequency radiation is prevented from escaping

If there were no greenhouse effect, Earth’s avg. temp would likely be?

-18 degrees C

Which is the most abundant greenhouse gas in the Earth’s atmosphere?

Water Vapor

Looking forward, common consensus will likely agree that the wisest use of fossil fuels is to?

Save them for tomorrows materials

when we can change the compositions of the atmosphere we likely also change?

average temp, climate, reflectivity, transparency

If the composition of the upper atmosphere were altered to permit a greater amount of terrestrial radiation to escape, earth would be?

Cooler. Allowing more radiation to escape is going to cause cooling.

Long ago a runaway greenhouse effect transformed the planet?

Venus

What are the 3 possible fates of neutrons in uranium metal?

escape, fission of U-235, absorbed by U-238

Which element typically undergoes a chain reaction?

U-235

Why doesn’t a chain reaction normally occur in uranium mines?

only a small amount of natural uranium is able to fission U-235, so released neutrons do not trigger another fission

Why is a chain reaction more likely to occur in a big piece of uranium than in a small piece?

in a big piece, the neutrons are more likely to strike another nucleus before exiting the piece

What is meant by the idea of a critical mass?

a mass that is large enough that the nucleus will hit another nucleus before exiting the mass.

What are the 4 main components of a fission reactor?

fuel, rod, moderator, fluid

What isotope is produced when U-238 absorbs a neutron?

U-239

In what way is a nuclear reactor similar to a conventional fossil-fuel plant?

They both boil water to make steam

Which ions of like charge and equal speed are least deflected in a mass spectrometer?

the more massive ions

In which element is the mass per nucleon greatest? Least?

Hydrogen is the greatest mass per nucleon, iron is the least mass per nucleon.

what is the range of visible light

380-770 nm

T/F longer wavelengths reach smaller frequencies

true

why is the period of osciliation larger for longer wavelengths

the period of oscilation is longer for longer WL because the speed of light is constant.

What is the visbility of UV light (300 nm)

invisible

what range is a photon with 1 nm in?

x-ray/gamma ray range

what range is a photon with 1000 nm or 1 micrometer

infrared

what range is a photon with 1 million nm or 1 mm

microwave

at 300 kelvin, what does earths surface emit

infrared

how does little water and no CO2 impact infrared

makes it less

IR photos may be absorbed by CO2, which then warms up what molecules

N2

a nucleus with 10 amu and a nucleus with 12 amu form exactly 22 amu, E=MC^2 is generated in the process. T/F?

false

T/F: the ozone layer is at about 1.6 km height

false

T/F: ozone is made of 3 oxygen atoms

truuuuu

T/F: ozone is never found at ground level

tru

T/F: ozone is a stable molecule that blocks UV and never breaks, if not for CFCs.

false

T/F: ozone molecules are bokren if a catalyst like chlorine is interacting with them

tru

alpha, beta, omicron are types of radiations, T/F:

false

T/F: gamma radiation is made of protons, light particles

tru

T/F: Beta radiation may turn a proton into a neutron

tru

T/F: iron nuclei may merge w/ krypton to form U-235 in the process fo creating a huge blast

false

T/F: atomic bombs were made from a few kg of uranium

tru

T/F: fission is the process of splitting heavy nuclei into smaller pieces, as long as energy is produced

tru

T/F: if the products of a split nuclei as less than the original mass, it becomes energy

false af

T/F: the merging of two small nuceli may result in energy producting

tru

T/F: the merging of small nuceli to produce larger masses was a process used for H bombs

true

fusion reactors are the largest productors of energy in the world

false

T/F: the power of an explosive device is in watts

tru

In small nuclear device is made3 of gasoline bomb and lead it will (made of 1 kg?)

will not have a nuclear explosion

If you only use oil for energy we will solve the world’s economic problems by 2018. T/F:

false

The reason we haven’t built fusion nuclear so far is?

we do not know how to create controlled fusion, uncontrolled fusion leads to H bombs.

When interference of waves happens on the screen we see dark and bright stripes. When one photon at a time hits the screen we see?

dark and bright stripes

Wave’s interference is when a wave crest and another crest form a bigger crest “bright spots”, and crests and troughs?

they cancel each other out

A “potential well” represents a molecule. More “loops” represent?

a higher energy level

The reason uranium fission releases energy is that?

the 92 protons in U hate each other

How many calories are needed per day? For a submarine??

2 billion kcal

Marie and Pierre Curie’s hypothesis was that the rays that developed the film near Becquerel’s uranium were?

a new kind of radiation

Maries and Pierre Curie proved that uranium was producing high energy radiation by?

measuring small currents in ionized gas near U

-What are the 3 types of radiation?

alpha, beta, gamma

what is the horizontal acceleration of a projectile?

none, no force or a on a horizontal plane

what is the acceleration of a baseball with no air resistance

Downward 9.8m/s ^2

When a satellite travels at a constant speed, the shape of its path is?

circle

NASA can’t load all observatories on one spaceship because?

the weight would be too large

There are some types of radiation that can’t be measured from Earth’s surface because?

the radiation cannot penetrate earth's atmosphere

Venus mission discovered that?

high temp, flowing lava on the surface, sulfuric acid in higher altitude

Many optical instruments such as lenses and mirrors were invented by?

archimedes, sahl, alhazen

The speed of light through stellar aberrations was found because?

Bradley was trying to find the parallax of nearby stars

Rainbows were explained by?

Theodoric, Farisi, Descartes, young

“Black Body” radiation peak can tell you what about the source?

the temperature of the source

kelvins to C

273.15

kelvins to F

460

If an electron vibrates up and down 1000 times each second, it generates and electromagnetic eave with a?

the electron would emit a wave with 1000 Hz

The electromagnetic spectrum spans waves ranging from lowest to highest frequencies. The smallest portion of the electromagnetic spectrum is that of?

visible light

Mixing red, green and blue light overlap to form?

white light

Which has less energy per photon?

red

Excitation is the process in which?

electrons are boosted to higher energy levels in an atom

Most of what we know about atoms is gained by investigating the?

the light they emit. how lit they are.

An atom that absorbs a photon can then emit one?

only at the same or lower energy