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112 Cards in this Set

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Conflict of Interest
A situation in which personal needs and interests are at odds with professional obligations.
Critical Thinking
Informed and logical thought, or logical problem solving
Ethical Issues
Moral questions or problems; situations or actions that contain legitimate questions of moral right or wrong
Ethics
The reasoned study of what is morally right and wrong, good and bad
Moral Character
Courage / determination to do what we know is right.
Situational Ethics
Determining what is right or good solely on the basis of the momentary context.
T/F - You can follow the law and still do something unethical.
TRUE
T/F - If something is legal it must be ethical.
FALSE
Rev. Martin Luther King wrote in his Letter to Birmingham Jail that breaking unjust laws:
Should be done openly, lovingly, and with a willingness to accept the consequences.
Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. wrote that he had hoped ___________________ would understand why law and order exist.
Moderate Whites
Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. wrote his Letter from a Birmingham Jail after being arrested for:
Parading without a permit
Legalism
The belief that ethical discussions are unnecessary because we have laws to govern people.
Relativism
The assumption that there are no moral standards, judgments, or principles that apply to everyone, what is right differs from one person to another and from one culture to another.
Applied Ethics
The actual use of moral standards of behavior in making decisions about human problems.
Morals
Behaviors that are judged to be consistent with good ethical thinking and decision making.
Ethical issues
Questions, problems, situations, or actions that contain legitimate questions or moral right or wrong
Ethical principles
General guidelines of ethical behavior, the should statements of ethics.
Virtues
Character traits that make up a moral life (qualities of excellence)
Values
Moral qualities that are considered important and worthy
Moral Judgments
Conclusions as to whether specific actions are ethically right or wrong.
Absolutism
The belief that there are no matters of opinion in ethics since all moral judgments are the same for everyone
Immoral
Behaviors that are contrary to good moral reasoning.
Moral
Behaviors that are judged to be consistent with good ethical thinking and decision making
Moral Sensitivity
Aware if recognizes / ID ethical issues or problem
Nonmoral
Behaviors that do not fall into the scope of the ethics environment and that normally have no moral effects on others.
T/F - According to the text one of the most important reasons that professors and schools promote academic integrity is that they know they are preparing students for careers in business and professions.
TRUE
According to Plato, we can only learn through pain.
FALSE
According to Lawrence Kohlberg's theory when he refers to the word convention he is talking about a:
standard of some kind
Kohlberg based his theory on ____________ and Gilligan based her theory on ___________.
justice, care
The central force that motivates us to mature is:
inner conflict
stage of Kohlberg's continuum - Stage 1
I will not steal because I will get in trouble. (Punishment & Obedience)
stage of Kohlberg's continuum - Stage 2
I will not steal because it would be bad for business (Instrument & Relativity) Self Centered; Fear of Punishment replaced by Desire for Self reward / May use Feelings against others
stage of Kohlberg's continuum - Stage 3
I will not steal because my parents would be disappointed (Interpersonal Concordance) roles / expectations / Empathy over Self-interests
stage of Kohlberg's continuum - Stage 4
I will not steal because it is against the law (Law & Order)
Moral / Civic responsibility
stage of Kohlberg's continuum - Stage 5/6
I will not steal because it is wrong. Less about laws than how laws were created.
5: Social Contract 6: Universal Ethical Principles)
Moral majority / great purpose / truth
T/F - Carol Gilligan was Lawrence Kohlberg's professor at Harvard.
FALSE
Which step of Gilligan's theory does this statement represent? The most important thing to me is making progress in my profession.
Step 1 - Care for Self
Which step of Gilligan's theory does this statement represent? My children are the most important thing to me, as a matter of fact my email is bobbyandsusiesmom@email.com.
Step 2 - Care for Others
Which step of Gilligan's theory does this statement represent? I have a job, a family, I try my best with both of them.
Step 3 - Balance self-interest and interests of others.
T/F - Gilligan's main complaint with Kohlberg's research was that he only studied children and did not believe that was right.
FALSE - Focused too much on Boys
(S)He used the teacher-learner experiment to further the study of moral development.
Stanley Milgram
Which one of the following individuals would best fit into Kohlberg's stage 6.
Not enough information to determine
Which one of the following would best fit into Kohlberg's stage 1.
Not enough information to determine.
Which one of the following would best fit into Gilligan's step 2
Not enough information to determine.
What type of argument is the following: Dr. Manias is underpaid. Dr. Manias is a teacher. Teachers are underpaid.
Inductive (Conclusion - Sometimes true)
What type of argument is the following? Teachers are underpaid. Dr. Manias is a teacher. Dr. Manias is underpaid.
Deductive (Conclusion - Always true)
critical thinking step - 1
Identification - Awareness that an ethical decision needs to be made and the recognition of the ethical implications of that decision.
critical thinking step - 2
Research - Gathering information about the central ethical problem.
critical thinking step - 3
Analysis - Looking into the smaller parts of a problem and seeing how they work together to create the bigger picture. Who are the stakeholders and how are they impacted by the options?
critical thinking step - 4
Application - This step helps us make decisions that are not only wise but ethical also.
critical thinking step - 5
Decision Making - Thoroughly address key aspects of the problem and insightfully use facts and relevant evidence to support and defend a valid solution.
critical thinking step - 6
Evaluation - Where we examine how we reached our decision to ensure that we have not slipped up somewhere along the way.
critical thinking step - 7
Reflection - Stepping back to look at your decision as objectively and honestly as possible.
T/F - We study the fallacies so we will not use them and so we know when others are using them.
TRUE
Which fallacy category does this statement best fit into? Brittany Spears says that SuperMom car seats are the best, that's why I use them
False appeal to authority
Which fallacy category does this statement best fit into? You don't know anything about painting you are just stupid
Ad hominem abusive
Which fallacy category does this statement best fit into? What do you know about painting, you are just a kid.
Ad hominem circumstantial
origins of ethical beliefs -Authority
People who base their ethical beliefs because someone declared them to be so.
origins of ethical beliefs - Culture
Actions are right or wrong because society thinks so.
origins of ethical beliefs - Emotion
Things are right or wrong because people become happy or sad.
origins of ethical beliefs - Intuition
Similar to a gut instinct
origins of ethical beliefs - Reason
Logical consistent thinking.
T/F - Consequential ethical theories are based on the outcomes or potential outcomes of the decision.
TRUE
T/F - Egoism is based on what is best for the individuals long term self interest.
TRUE
T/F - The key assumption of psychological egoism is that people are motivated by their own self interests.
TRUE
Utilitarianism is based on the idea of:
Maximizing good and minimizing bad
This type of utilitarianism is concerned with doing what is best for those who are involved and impacted by the decision being made
Act Utilitarianism
The word teleos means:
End, Goal, Purpose
T/F - An egoist would help someone get ahead at work if it would benefit him (the egoist) in the long run.
TRUE
T/F - Self interest is the fuel of commerce and capitalism.
TRUE
The sum or total of the happiness and unhappiness caused by a specific action is known as.
Net utility
Finding the action that would produce the greatest possible good in all situations like this if everyone followed it
Rule Utility
Put the following teachers and students in chronological order starting with the earliest.
Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
He called himself the gadfly of Athens.
Socrates
He was the teacher of Alexander the Great.
Aristotle
Which is the best definition of virtue?
Excellence
What are the four classical virtues?
Courage, Justice, Self Control, Wisdom
According to modern philosophers the best way to define eudaimonia is:
Flourishing
Aristotle's definition of virtues being perfectly balanced points of moderation between two opposing, undesirable extremes.
Golden Mean
Deon is the Greek word for:
Duty
T/F - Act only on the maximum that at the same time you could will to be a universal law is a key principle of Kant's theory.
FALSE
T/F - Act so that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or that of another, always as an end and never as a means only is a key principle of Kant's theory.
TRUE
Veil of Ignorance
Imaginary process that keeps the contractors in the original position from knowing specific facts about themselves that might influence their decisions.
Equal Liberties Principle
Everyone is entitled to as many rights as possible, as long as rights are not taken from others. (Rawls)
Equal Opportunity Principle
Everyone should have a fair chance to improve their situations in life. (Rawls)
Difference Principle
In cases where there are inequalities, inequalities must be arranged for the greatest possible advantage of the least advantaged people. (Rawls)
philosophers with the appropriate theory - Aristotle
Virtue Ethics
philosophers with the appropriate theory - Bentham
Utilitarianism
philosophers with the appropriate theory - Kant
Deontology
philosophers with the appropriate theory - Rawls
Contractarianism
deductive Argument
Force & Form. Argument, premise are true & structure valid
inductive Argument
Less force and cant be guaranteed
James Rest's - 4 Components of Moral Behavior
Moral Sensitivity, Moral Judgment, Moral Motives, Moral Character.
Kohlberg's continuum - Stage 1 & 2 = Level?
Level 1 - Pre - Conventional: Egocentric or self-centered thinking.
Kohlberg's continuum - Stage 3 & 4 = Level?
Level II = Conventional: Conforming to social standards and rules.
Kohlberg's continuum - Stage 5 & 6 = Level?
Level III = Post-Conventional: Reasoning based on ethical principals and values.
Part 1 of Argument
Premise - reasons and evidence of position
Part 2 of Argument
Structure - How argument is put together. If Then or "One is round is is other"
Part 3 of Argument
Conclusion - Point supported by Premise
Fact Statement
Statement of Fact (Deductive)
Rule Statement
General Fact of how things are or should be. (Inductive)
Exp: All balls are round.
Non-consequential
Based on factors other that results or outcomes. (Duty, Obligations, rights, natural law)
Virtue Ethics
Focus on personal chars.; becoming right kid of person and dev right traits.
Socrates, Plato & Aristotle
Natural Law
Conduct based on perceived inherent order in the universe.
Natural Rights
Exclusive protection of and reliance of basic human rights
Locke's - Avoid violating rights of others.
Kant's Theory
Basis of Moral right & wrong on self-derived, universal & moral duties... Through reason & intuition.
Contractarianism
Ethics based on justice, fairness, helping people understand and ideal & fair solution.
Positive Right
You are owed it, you don't get it for yourself, someone else get it for you. - Parents provide for children
Negative Right
Freedom from interference. No one is obligated to to provide it to you. - Right to try to obtain something. Exp: College
Rawl's 3 Principles of Justice
Liberty - Freedom as long as it is not take from others.
Opportunity - Chance to improve
Difference - Arrange diff for greatest benefit of least advantaged.
Evaluating Deductive Argument
Valid = Structure correct
Invalid = Structure Wrong
Sound = Structure &/or Premise OK
Unsound = Structure & Premise Not OK
Evaluating Inductive Argument
Suspect = Any premise is wrong
Cogent = Premise & Conclusion OK
uncogent = Premise &/or Conclusion wong