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62 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Key Skills to Manage Performance Effectively

1. Coaching

2. Giving Feedback

3. Conducting Performance Review Meetings

Performance Management Systems

1. Help employees develop and improve performance.

2. Address long-term career goals and aspirations.

3. Managers with necessary skills to help employees achieve these goals.


1. Collaborative, on-going process.

2. Manager-employee interaction

3. Directing, motivating, rewarding employee behaviours.

4. Observing performance, complimenting good work helping correct and improve performance

5. Concerned with long-term performance

Cultural Transvergence

Cultural differences are discussed openly and alternate practices that enhance individual and team performance are implemented.

Guiding Principles that Provide a Good Framework for Understanding Good Coaching

1. A good coaching relationship is essential

2. Employee is the source and director of change

3. Employee is whole and unique

4. Coach is thee facilitator of employee growth

Good Coaching Relationship is Essential

- trusting and collaborative

- coach must listen to understand

- search for positive aspects of the employee

- coaching is done with, not to, employee

- coach needs empathy and compassion

Employee is the Source and Director of Change

- coaching is to change employee behaviour

- set a direction for what employees will do differently in the future

- coach needs to facilitate the employee's setting of the agenda, goals, and direction

Employee is Whole and Unique

- unique personal history

- has several job-related and unrelated identities

- coach must create a whole, rich picture of employee

- helps employee connect life and work experiences in meaningful ways

Coach is a Facilitator of Employee Growth

- coach must direct the process and help with content, but not control the issues

- coach must maintain attitude of exploration

- help expand employee's awareness of strengths, resources, and challenges

- facilitate goal setting

Coaching Functions

1. Give Advice

2. Provide Guidance

3. Give Support

4. Give Confidence

5. Promote Greater Competence

Give Advice

- helps employees improve their performance (describes what and how)

- concerned with both results and behaviours

Provide Guidance

- allows employees to develop skills and knowledge

- provide information on skills and knowledge to do work

- provide information on how to gain necessary skills and knowledge

Give Support

- be there only when a manager is needed (don't control employee's every move)

Give Confidence

- enables them to enhance performance

- give positive feedback

- give feedback on things they can improve

Promote Greater Competence

- guide employees toward acquiring more knowledge and sharpening of skills to prepare for more complex tasks and higher - level positions

- consider both short- and long-term objectives

- explain benefits of new skills & knowledge


Analyzes industry trends, prepares workers' compensation insurance rate recommendations, assists in pricing proposed legislation, provides a variety of data products to maintain healthy workers' compensation system, reduce the frequency of worker injuries.


- managers attend monthly meetings where they learn from each other's coaching experiences and solicit feedback

Coaching - Feedback into Results

1. Establish developmental objectives

2. Communicate effectively

3. Motivate employees

4. Document performance

5. Give Feedback

6. Diagnose Performance Problems

7. Develop Employees

Good Coach Questionnaire

1. Do you listen to your employees?

2. Do you understand the individual needs of your employees?

3. Do you encourage employees to express their feelings openly?

4. Do you provide your employees with tangible/intangible support for development?

Good Coach Questionnaire

5. Do your employees know your expectations about their performance?

6. Do you encourage open and honest discussions and problem solving?

7. Do you help your employees create action plans that will solve problems and create changes when needed?

8. Do you help your employees explore potential areas of growth and development?

Coaching Styles

1. Driver

2. Persuading

3. Amiable

4. Analyzer

No style is superior to others - need a combination of these styles or adjust their style according to an employees needs (56% employees say there is a mismatch between coaching style and employee need)


- assertive, speaks quickly and often firmly, usually talks about tasks and facts, not very expressive, narrow range of personal feelings towards others


- explain benefits for organization and employee, assertive, use expansive body gestures, talk more about people and relationships, expose others to broad range of personal feelings


wants everyone to be happy, subjective more than objective, direct to act in a certain way because it "feels" right


analyzes performance in a logical and systematic way, follows rules and procedures when providing information, not very assertive, talks about tasks and facts rather than personal feelings

Coaching Process

1. Setting Developmental Goals

2. Identify Resources and Strategies

3. Implementing the Strategies

4. Collect and Evaluate Data to Assess

5. Provide Feedback to Employee

Setting Developmental Goals

- key component of developmental plan

- goals must be reasonable, attainable, derived from careful analysis

- take into account short- and long-term career objectives

Identify Resources and Strategies

- to help employee reach developmental goals

- on the job training, attending courses, self-guided reading, mentoring, attending conferences, getting a degree, job rotation, temporary assignment, membership or leadership role in a professional trade or org.

Implementing the Strategies

- to allow employees to achieve developmental goals

Collect & Evaluate Data to Assess

- extent to which goals are achieved

Provide Feedback to Employee

- developmental goals are revised

- process again

Halo Error

- assuming that if an employee does one job well, all jobs are done well


- memos, letters, e-mails, handwritten notes, comments, observations, descriptions, evaluations provided by colleagues

Constraints in Attempting to Observe Employee's Performance

1. Time Constraints

2. Situational Constraints

3. Activity Constraints

Time Constraints

- managers may be too busy to gather and document information, or too much time elapses between the assignment of the activity and the manager checking on the progress

Situational Constraints

- managers are often unable to observe employees and may not have first hand knowledge of their performance

Activity Constraints

- when developmental activity is highly unstructured, manager may have to wait until activity is complete to assess if activity is beneficial

Resolutions of Constraint Issues

- have a good communication plan to explain benefits of implementing a development plan effectively

- helps managers accept the plan

- managers should be trained to minimize errors

- confident & comfortable in managing employees development activities

- understand the forces that motivate managers to invest time and effort

Why Document Performance?

1. Minimize cognitive load

2. Create trust

3. Plan for the future

4. Provide legal protection

Minimize Cognitive Load

- documentation helps prevent memory related errors

Create Trust

- documentation supports evaluations, so no mystery of outcomes (promotes trust and acceptance of decisions)

Plan for the Future

- documentation enables discussions about facts instead of assumptions and hearsay, and permits better planning of developmental activities in the future

Provide Legal Protection

- prevents discrimination by keeping accurate records of developmental activities that have been successfully completed and to what degree

Documentation Guidelines

1. Be specific

2. Use adjectives and adverbs sparingly

3. Balance positives with negatives

4. Focus on job-related info

5. Be comprehensive

6. Standardize procedures

7. Describe observable behaviour

Giving Feedback Guidelines

- key component to coaching

- information about past behaviour given with the goal of improving future performance

- aka "feed forward"

- includes info about positive and negative aspects

- 2 + 2 performance appraisal by peers

2 + 2 Performance Appraisal

- offers 2 compliments and 2 suggestions

Reasons for Feedback

1. Helps build confidence

2. Develops competence

3. Enhances involvement

38% of all feedback programs reviewed had a negative effect

Poor Feedback Programs

If feedback doesn't include useful information or is not delivered in the right way:

- may create self doubt and questions about identity

Suggestions to Enhance Feedback

1. Timeliness

2. Frequency

3. Specificity

4. Verifiability

5. Consistency

6. Privacy

7. Consequences

8. Description First, Evaluation Second

9. Performance Continuum

10. Pattern Identification

11. Confidence in Employee

12. Advice and Idea Generation

Core Self Evaluation

A combination of 4 traits:

1. Self-esteem

2. Self-efficacy

3. Emotional Stability

4. Locus of Control


degree to which the employee has a favourable attitude of himself


degree to which the employee feels capable of taking action and control

Emotional Stability

degree to which the employee feels insecure, timid, guilty

Locus of Control

degree to which the employee believes he can control events and outcomes

Low Core Self-Evaluation

- overall lower satisfaction with job

- managers need to be aware of employees with low core self-evaluation as they may react poorly (feel hurt and helpless if receiving negative feedback)


- should be sincere and only when deserved

- about specific behaviours or results and given within context

- managers should take time and act pleased versus rushing and looking embarrassed

Negative Feedback

- goal is to help improve performance

- not to punish, embarrass, or chastise

- give only when warranted

- if no consequences, can provoke high performers to leave because they can't accept mediocrity

Reasons for Discomfort Giving Negative Feedback

1. Fear negative reactions and consequences

2. Had negative experiences in the past

3. Feel judgmental and playing "god"

4. Need for irrefutable and conclusive evidence

Feedback Gaps

- managers and employees mutually instigate and reinforce lack of communication and lacks meaningful exchanges about poor performance

- performance problems may become more intense over time if not addressed

Uses of Negative Feedback

- when early coaching has identified warning signs and performance problem is still manageable

- clarifies unwanted behaviours and consequences focuses on behaviours that can be changed

- if employee doesn't have control over a situation then negative feedback isn't useful

Actionable Feedback

- allows employee to respond in constructive ways and leads to learning and performance improvement

Questions Feedback Sessions Should Answer

1. How is your job going? Do you have what you need to do your job?

2. Are you adequately trained? Do you have the skills and tools you need to do your job?

3. What can be done to improve your and your unit's/organization's job/products/services?

4. How can you better serve your internal and external customers?