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36 Cards in this Set

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amino acid
Organic compound with an amino group (NH2), a carboxylic acid group (COOH), and a side group bonded covalently to the same carbon atom. Subunit of proteins.
antioxidant
Enzyme or cofactor that can help neutralize free radicals, which may otherwise damage DNA and other molecules of life.
archaea
Evolutionarily distinct domain of prokaryotic organisms.
ATP
Adenosine triphosphate. Nucleotide made of adenine, ribose, and three phosphate groups; main energy carrier in cells.
cleavage
Early stage of animal development. Mitotic cell divisions divide a fertilized egg into many smaller, nucleated cells; original volume of egg cytoplasm does not increase.
coenzyme
Small molecule that participates in an enzymatic reaction, and is reversibly modified during the reaction (e.g., a vitamin).
compound
Molecule consisting of two or more elements in unvarying proportions.
condensation reaction
Covalent bonding of two molecules into a larger molecule, often with the formation of water as a by-product.
connective tissue
Most abundant, pervasive animal tissue. Specialized types are cartilage, bone tissue, adipose tissue, and blood.
cytoskeleton
Interconnected system of protein filaments that structurally supports, organizes, and moves a eukaryotic cell and its internal structures.
denaturation
The three-dimensional shape of a protein or some other complex molecule unravels as its hydrogen bonds are disrupted.
deoxyribonucleic acid
See DNA.
disaccharide
A common oligosaccharide; two covalently bonded sugar monomers.
disease
Illness caused by an infectious, dietary, or environmental factor.
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid. Carries the primary hereditary information for all living organisms and many viruses.
electron transfer chain
Array of membrane-bound enzymes and other molecules that accept and give up electrons in sequence; allows the release and capture of energy in small, useful increments.
energy
Capacity to do work.
enzyme
A type of protein (or, rarely, RNA) that accelerates a chemical reaction.
fat
Type of lipid with a glycerol head attached to one, two, or three fatty acid tails.
functional group
An atom or a group of atoms with characteristic properties that is covalently bonded to an organic compound’s carbon backbone.
hemoglobin
Respiratory protein in red blood cells; consists of four polypeptide chains and four heme groups.
hydrolysis
An enzymatic cleavage reaction in which a molecule is split, and the components of water (—OH and —H) become attached to each of the fragments.
induced-fit model
An enzyme changes shape to fit a bound substrate, and the resulting tension destabilizes the substrate’s bonds.
lipid
Nonpolar hydrocarbon; fats, oils, waxes, phospholipids, and sterols are lipids.
monosaccharide
One of the simple sugars (e.g., glucose) that are unit components of oligosaccharides or polysaccharides.
mutation
Heritable change in DNA.
nucleic acid
Single-stranded or double-stranded molecule composed of nucleotides joined at phosphate groups (e.g., DNA, RNA).
nucleotide
Small organic compound with a five-carbon sugar, a nitrogen-containing base, and a phosphate group.
organic compound
Molecule containing carbon and hydrogen; may also contain oxygen, nitrogen, and other elements.
polypeptide chain
Three or more amino acids linked by peptide bonds.
polysaccharide
Straight or branched chain of many covalently linked sugar units of the same or different kinds. Most common types are cellulose, starch, and glycogen.
protein
Organic compound consisting of one or more polypeptide chains folded and twisted into a three-dimensional shape.
ribonucleic acid
See RNA.
RNA
Ribonucleic acid. Any of a class of single-stranded nucleic acids with roles in transcription, translation, and catalysis.
sterol
Lipid with a rigid backbone of four fused carbon rings.
wax
A type of lipid with long-chain fatty acids attached to long-chain alcohols or carbon rings.