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63 Cards in this Set

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____ is considered the leading cause of neonatal death in the United States.

LBW (low birth weight), which is closely related to early gestational age

____ are the leading cause of death in children over age 1 year, with the majority being ____

Injuries




motor vehicle accident (MVA) injuries.

____are the leading cause of death in children ages 5 to 9 because this age group have the ability to run and climb and may experience falls, burns, and collisions.

Unintentional injuries and accidents

Birth weight of less than 2,500 grams or 5.5 pounds in considered ____. It is associated with higher neonatal mortality rate in the United States when compared with other countries. The lower the birth weight, the higher the mortality rate.

low birth weight (LBW).

_____ is recommended for consumption to prevent tooth decay.

Always drinking fluoridated water

The ____ the child knows of his adoption status, the better.

earlier




Generally, older children display anger and sadness.

Many religions believe in supernatural causes and cures of diseases. Many ___ people wear amulets and necklaces, which they believe ward off evil and protect a person from evil eye and diseases.

Mexican

Many traditional ____ people avoid direct eye contact as a sign of respect.

Chinese

The term ___ connotes an oblique or asymmetric head;

plagiocephaly

____ is a condition in which the infant has an oblique or asymmetric head. The fontanels in the skull of an infant are not closed, which makes the skull pliable. The posterior occiput flattens over time if the infant is placed on his or her back during sleep. This leads to the development of an atypical bald spot, asymmetric distortion of the skull, and tightening of sternocleidomastoid muscle leads to torticollis in the infant.

Positional plagiocephaly

Liquid iron supplements may stain the teeth, so the nurse should advise the parents to administer the liquid iron supplement ____

with a dropper toward the back of the mouth.

Apnea, pallor, cyanosis, change in muscle tone, and gagging are apparent life-threatening events. Infants with an apparent life-threatening event are at higher risk for ___

SIDS.

Not sleeping properly, refusing to eat solid foods, biting on hard objects, and sucking on fingers continuously are all signs of _____. The child feels discomfort as the crown of the tooth breaks through the periodontal membrane.

teething

An adjuvant is found in some vaccines to increase the body's immune response. Adjuvant-containing vaccines should be given deep into the ___ to prevent local reactions.

muscle

At ____, the child should be self-feeding. Because children this age eat primarily finger foods, it is useful to offer the parent suggestions for keeping the mess to a minimum.

12 months

Apnea of infancy has been diagnosed in an infant who will soon be discharged with home monitoring. What should the parents be taught?

CPR

Which activity of a 10-month-old infant indicates the development of object permanence?

Looking for a hidden object that the infant had seen earlier

A child who already attended daycare can easily mingle with a new environment and can adjust to ____ differences.

sociocultural

The nurse is caring for a toddler who is hospitalized. The nurse finds that the toddler is afraid of the new environment and gets cranky. What does the nurse tell the parents to do to make the toddler comfortable?

Give appropriate play objects to the child for comfort.

Stuttering is common during the age of 2 to 5 years. This is the period when children speak faster than they can produce the words. This failure of sensorimotor integration leads to stuttering. However, parents should be reassured that it usually resolves in childhood. Stuttering is more common in boys than girls. It is not caused due to bacterial infection or deviated nasal septum or hearing problems.

Nursing

A ____-year-old child should be able to make complete sentences with six to eight words. The inability of the child to make complete sentences indicates that the child has slow language development.

5

A nurse is presenting a class on injury prevention to parents of preschoolers. Which injuries should the nurse identify as occurring in this age group? Select all that apply.

Falls Drowning Poisoning Tricycle and bicycle accidents

A child suffering from ____ has the symptoms of nasal discharge, skin rashes, and a protruding neck. Penicillin G (Pfizerpen) is prescribed as treatment for this.

diphtheria

A child infected with ____ may have a slapped face appearance. It is called erythema infectiosum; it affects the blood cells, leading to a decrease in the ____and possibly leading to ___.

human parvovirus (HPV) B19




platelet count




thrombocytopenia

The nurse preparing a nutritional teaching plan for the parents of a preschool child should include which information?

The quality of the food consumed is more important than the quantity

The nurse is caring for a child with high fever, flushed cheeks, and a swollen red tongue. What are the probable complications the child may have during treatment?

Acute rheumatic fever

____ is a form of medical child abuse where the primary health care providers are misled by parents. The parents exaggerate the child's symptoms and history, and the child undergoes physical, emotional, or psychological abuse.

Munchausen syndrome by proxy

Antipruritic medicines such as ____are useful for severe itching,

diphenhydramine (Benadryl)

Based on Piaget's theory of cognitive development, what is one basic concept a child is expected to attain during the first year of life?

object permanence

When the nurse finds three or more minor defects in an infant, the nurse should ____

suspect a possible underlying syndrome after notifying the primary health care provider.

_____ is given to the child by a parent when the child cannot maintain body temperature outside the uterine environment. It helps provide thermal regulation.

Kangaroo care

____ is a disorder of impaired phenylalanine metabolism. Because milk acts as an environmental trigger for this condition, the nurse instructs the child to stay away from milk products.

Phenylketonuria

The nurse finds that an infant with a cleft palate is at risk for obstructive apnea. Which associated findings does the nurse expect? Select all that apply.

Recessed mandible


Abnormally placed tongue

____ is play that is organized; children play in a group with other children and plan activities for purposes of accomplishing an end.

Cooperative play

____ play occurs when children play independently but among other children. ____ play is described as play in which children watch but make no attempt to enter into play with other children.

Parallel




Onlooker



During ____ play, the child plays in coordination with other children and strives to win the game.

associative

The neonate has hypothermia, and therefore the nurse instructs the mother to perform kangaroo care, in which the unclothed infant is placed on the mother’s bare chest. This ensures improved thermoregulation and improves the complications of hypothermia. The presence of metabolic acidosis is a symptom of hypothermia. Hypoglycemia is caused by hypothermia in the infant. The normal weight of a healthy neonate at birth is approximately 7.5 lbs. By one year of age, the infant’s weight normally triples to 21 lbs.

Nursing

___—Conception to ≈2 weeks


____—2 to 8 weeks


____—8 to 40 weeks (birth)


___—Birth to 27 or 28 days


____—1 to ≈12 months


____—1 to 3 years


____—3 to 6 years


____—10 to 13 years


____—13 to ≈18 years


Germinal


Embryonic


Fetal


Neonatal



Infancy


Toddler



Preschool


Prepubertal



Adolescence


During ____, development in motor activities is assessed by watching the child walk and climb.


____ is when rapid motor, cognitive, and social development is seen. In ____, children develop skill competence.

early childhood (1-6years)




Infancy (0–12 months)




middle childhood (6–12 years)

Children belonging to non-Western cultures are taught to ____when being addressed by an adult. This behavior is considered as a sign of respect and politeness.

avert their gaze and to look down

The judicious use of ____ has decreased the number of unnecessary visits, allowing time for improved care. Health care costs have decreased because of fewer visits to emergency departments.

telephone triage

To assess the lymph nodes in the head and neck, the nurse tilts the child's head ___

upward slightly but without tensing the sternocleidomastoid or trapezius muscles.

Superficial palpation of the abdomen is often perceived by the child as tickling. Which measure by the nurse is most likely to minimize this sensation and promote relaxation?

Having the child "help" with palpation by placing his or her hand over the palpating hand

Children____ are egocentric and see things only through their point of view. Children can effectively use their hands to communicate ideas better than words. The child's pushing unwanted objects away; pulling the nurse to show off play items, and covering the mouth of the mother indicate that the child is in the early childhood stage.

younger than 5 years of age

In a child older than 7 years of age, the location of the apical impulse is at ___

the left midclavicular region and fifth intercostal space.

Deficiency of____causes symptoms such as tiredness and fatigue, pale skin, sore tongue, bleeding gums, stomach upset, rapid heartbeat, and mood swings.

vitamins B6 and B12

Muscle weakness, anemia, neurological damage, and alopecia are the primary symptoms due to the deficiency of ____

vitamin E.

There are a myriad of tests that are performed to assess vision. The nurse should assess for the __2__to determine ocular alignment.

corneal light reflex [1], [2] or conduct a cover test

In ____, one eye deviates from the point of fixation.

strabismus, or cross-eye

If strabismus is not detected and corrected by age 4 to 6 years, blindness from disuse, known as ____, may result.

amblyopia

Long-term deficiency of____ causes symptoms like flaking and scaling skin, as well as night blindness

vitamin A

Delayed wound healing, dental problems and muscle aches are the signs and symptoms of ____ deficiency.

vitamin C

__—Increased rate


__—Decreased rate


__—Distress during breathing


__—Cessation of breathing


__—Increased depth


__—Decreased depth (shallow) and irregular rhythm


__—Increased rate and depth

Tachypnea


Bradypnea


Dyspnea


Apnea


Hyperpnea


Hypoventilation


Hyperventilation

___ breath sounds can only be heard over the trachea near the suprasternal notch. These breath sounds have a ___ inspiratory phase and a __ expiratory phase.

Bronchial


short


long

Stabbing and burning sensations in the arms and legs are symptoms of neuropathic pain. ____ is prescribed for the treatment of neuropathic pain, which is associated with cancer.

Amitriptyline

The combination of ____provides anesthesia within 10 to 15 minutes of application.

lidocaine, adrenaline, and tetracaine


LAT

Temper tantrums are common during the toddler years and essentially represent the normal growth and development of the child. The nurse should instruct the parents to be calm and tell the child in a polite and positive way why the child cannot have what is desired.

Nursing

The nurse is assessing a 4-year-old child with delayed motor development. The nurse notes that the child stands with a wide base. What does the nurse interpret from this finding?

Impaired balance of the body

A major problem in the toddler age-group is separation anxiety. This happens when parents leave for periods of time either because work, day care, or hospitalization. The nurse should observe the child carefully and try to alleviate the toddler's fears. One important intervention is ___

to provide transitional objects for the child to make him or her feel comfortable.




Blanket, book, bear, etc

The nurse is observing a child who is sitting on the parent's lap. The child is able to speak one word completely. What does the nurse interpret from the observation? The child:

is probably about 12 months old

Adolescents should be vaccinated against hepatitis B at this age if not done previously. ____are necessary to achieve immunity. The recommendation is that the hepatitis B vaccine series be started at birth.

Three doses

Blood loss due to menstruation causes ____in adolescents. Therefore, the nurse should advise the patient to take __2__to improve the levels of hemoglobin.

iron-deficiency anemia




iron-rich food or iron pills

Antihypertensive drugs such as calcium channel blockers can induce ____

gynecomastia, or enlargement of the breast.