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28 Cards in this Set

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Biochemistry is under __.
Organic Chemistry
Organic Chemistry is the chemistry of __.
carbon compounds
Biochemistry is:

> The chemistry of __.
> Study of life in the __level.
> It is concerned with the biological molecules of living organisms; its __, __, and __.
> It relates to how the biomolecules work in supporting the different life's processes and how they are affected by __ factors.
> life
> molecular
> structure, properties, and functions
> external
5 Major Complex Biomolecules?
What are their BUILDING BLOCKS and FUNCTIONS?
1. DNA - deoxynucleotides - genetic material
2. RNA - rebonucleotides - protein synthesis
3. Proteins - amino acids - carry out work
4. Carbohydrates - glucose - short term storage of energy as glucose
5. Lipids - fatty acids - long storage of energy as triacylglycerols
5 Chief Components of the Human Body?
1. Protein - 17.0%
2. Fats - 13.8%
3. Carbohydrates - 1.50%
4. Water - 61.60%
5. Minerals/Vitamins- 6.10%
__ and __ uses water in chemical reaction. This process is known as __.
Proteins and Carbohydrates
Hydrolysis
The CELL is the __ of biochemical activities.
It is the __ of life.
site
building blocks
2 COMPOSITIONS of the Cell?
Organic and Inorganic
In Organic composition (10-25%), you have:
1. __ - proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, lipids
2. others - __
> substances with high group transfer potential (i.e. creatinine PO4, phosphoenol pyruvate, ATP, etc.)
> metabolic intermediates
1. biomolecules
2. coenzymes
In Inorganic composition (1%), you have:
1. __ - 70-90%
2. Ions
1. water
What are the 2 types of IONS?
__ and __
Abundant and Trace Ions
Abundant ions are:
Na, K, Ca, Mg
Na+ - sodium

__ ion
> activates __ which leads to __ formation
> causes __ retention

* ATPase means __.
EXTRACELLULAR

> ATPase, ADP
> water

* adenosine triphosphate
K+ - potassium

__ ion
> required by enzymes like ATPase, pyruvate kinase, phosphatases
> low level can lead to __
INTRACELLULAR

> sudden death
102. You add RBCs from different individuals to both Anti-A and to Anti-B typing sera and obtain one of the following reactions: Which of the following represents results from someone who is type 0
a
Mg++ - magnesium

present mainly in __
> activates phosphatases, transphosphorylases, enolases, peptidases, etc.
RBC
What are the TRACE ions?
Zn, Fe, I, Cu, Mn, Co, Sn, Cr
Fe++, Fe+++ - ferrous sulfate - 70% in __

> also found in myoglobin, cytochrome C, peroxidases, catalases, oxidases, and in iron-sulfur proteins
hemoglobin
Zn++ - 90% of all __ require Zn

Deficiency leads to:
1. __ retardation
2. __ RBC
3. dermatitis
4. poor __ healing
5. impaired __ response
90%

1. growth
2. low
4. wound
5. immune
I - iodine

contained in the __ hormone
thyroid
Cr+++ - chromium

helps maintain normal __ level by interacting with __ receptors
glucose, insulin
Mn++ - manganese

enzyme__ of histidase, amino peptidase
cofactor
Cu++ - copper

required by variety of __; cytochrome oxidase, ascorbic acid oxidase, tryosinase, uricase
enzymes
Co++ - cobalt

found in __ coenzyme
cyanocobalamine
Mo++ - molybdenum

cofactor of __ oxidase
xanthine
Sn+++ - tin

stabilizes tertiary __ structure
protein
Plasma membrane

__ the entire cell; acts as __
> contains __ and __
> structure of the plasma membrane: lipid __
> semipermeable; selective

* crystalloidal particles can pass through; colloidal cannot
surrounds; barrier/protective
> pumps and channels
> bilayer
Nucleus

__ of the cell; __ center of the cell

> contains __ material
> prokaryotes vs eukaryotes

Prokaryotes contains no nucleus and lack many of the organelles. Eukaryotes contain nucleus and has many membrane bound organelles
brain; control

genetic