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19 Cards in this Set

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what are the 3 main materials bone is composed of

support cells (osteoprogenitor cell, osteoblast, osteoclasts, osteocytes)


non-mineral matrix of osteoid


inorganic minerals stored within the matrix

name the cavity in the middle of the diaphysis

medullary cavity

from "top to bottom" what are the main areas of the bone

epiphysis


epiphyseal line


metaphysis


diaphysis


metaphysis


epiphyseal line


epiphysis

what type of bone is found in the outer diaphysis
thick layer of cortical/compact bone
underneath which is a thin layer of spongy/trabecullar/cancellous bone

what type of bone is found in the epiphysis

spongy/cancellous/trabecular bone

what is the outer layer of the bone called

the periosteum

what type of bone surrounds the medullary cavity of the diaphysis

thick layer of compact bone


what feature of the epiphyseal growth plate in the metaphysis in growing bone allows

layer of hyaline cartilage allowed diaphysis to grow in length

what type of cartilage is in articular cartilage

hyalin cartilage

where is the articular cartilage found

covers part of the epiphysis where the bone forms a joint with another bone

what is the function of articular cartilage

reduces friction and absorb shock

why is damage to articular cartilage often irreversible

because it lacks blood vessels and a perichondrium (the connective tissue that envelops cartilage where it is not at a joint)

what is the inner and outer layer of the periosteum composed of

inner osteogenic layer


outer fibrous layer


what is the main function of the medullary cavity

it is a hollow space and so it makes things lighter


it contains yellow bone marrow

what are osteogenic/osteoprogenitor cells

unspecialised bone stem cells derived from mesenchyme (the tissue from which almost all connective tissues are formed) They are the only bone cells to undergo cell division, which develop into osteoblasts.

where are osteogenic/osteoprogenitor cells found

Osteogenic cells are found along the inner portion of the periosteum, in the endosteum and within bone that contain blood vessels. 

Osteogenic cells are found along the inner portion of the periosteum, in the endosteum and within bone that contain blood vessels.

what are osteoblasts

Osteoblasts are bone building cells. They synthesise and secrete collage fibres and other organic components needed to build the extracellular matrix of bone tissue, and they initiate calcification. As osteoblasts surround themselves with extracel...

Osteoblasts are bone building cells. They synthesise and secrete collage fibres and other organic components needed to build the extracellular matrix of bone tissue, and they initiate calcification. As osteoblasts surround themselves with extracellular matrix, they become trapped in their secretions and become osteocytes. Ossification is the laying down of new bone material by osteoblasts.

what are osteocytes

Osteocytes are mature bone cells which maintain daily metabolism, such as the exchange of nutrients and wastes with the blood. They are the main cells in the bone tissue and they do not undergo any cell division. 

Osteocytes are mature bone cells which maintain daily metabolism, such as the exchange of nutrients and wastes with the blood. They are the main cells in the bone tissue and they do not undergo any cell division.

what are osteoclasts

Osteoclasts are huge cells derived from the fusion of as many as 50 monocytes and are concentrated in the endosteum. On the side of the cell that faces the bone surface, the osteoclast’s plasma membrane is deeply folded into a ruffled border. He...

Osteoclasts are huge cells derived from the fusion of as many as 50 monocytes and are concentrated in the endosteum. On the side of the cell that faces the bone surface, the osteoclast’s plasma membrane is deeply folded into a ruffled border. Here the cell releases powerful lysosomal enzymes and acids that digest the protein and mineral components of the underlying extracellular bone matrix. This breakdown of bone extracellular matrix, termed resorption is part of the normal development, maintenance and repair of the bone.