Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/51

Click to flip

51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
___ is composed of water, proteins, neutral fats, and glycogen.
Cytoplasm is composed of water, proteins, neural fats, and glycogen.
All __ cells have a nucleus whereas ___ cells do not.
All eukaryotic cells have a nucleus whereas prokaryotic cells do not.
The nucleus contains ___, which serves as the template for making all the ___, which is later used to direct the synthesis of ___ in the cytoplasm.
The nucleus contains DNA, which serves as the template for making all the RNA, which is later used to direct the synthesis of proteins in the cytoplasm.
Ribosomes serve as the site for ___ synthesis in the cytoplasm.
Ribosomes serves as the site for protein synthesis in the cytoplasm.
___ endoplasmic reticulum is studded with ribosomes attached to specific binding sites on the membrane.
Rough endoplasmic reticulum is studded with ribosomes attached to specific binding sites on the membrane.
The ___ complex modifies proteins and packages them into secretory granules bound for the membrane.
The Golgi complex modifies proteins and packages them into secretory granules bound for the membrane.
__ contain powerful hydrolytic enzymes that are used to break down excess and worn-out cell parts as well as foreign substances.
Lysosomes contain powerful hydrolytic enzymes that are used to break down excess worn-out cell parts as well as foreign substances.
Peroxisomes contain a special enzyme that degrades ___.
Peroxisomes contain a special enzyme that degrades peroxides.
Mitochondria are the site of cellular ____, the product of which is the formation of ____.
Mitochondria are the site of cellular respiration, the product of which is the formation of ATP.
Transport along the axon of neuronal cells takes place along the primary cytoskeletal component ____.
Transport along the axon of neuronal cells takes place along the primary cytoskeletal component microtubules.
Actin and myosin are examples of functional ___ within muscle cells.
Actin and myosin are examples of functional microfilaments within muscle cells.
Integral proteins span the entire lipid bilayer whereas ___ proteins are bound to one side of the membrane or the other.
Integral proteins span the entire lipid bilayer whereas peripheral proteins are bound to one side of the membrane or the other.
The four tissues of the body are ___, ____, ____, and ____.
The four tissues of the body are epithelial, connective, muscle, and neuronal.
The differences in permeability of ___ is responsible for the generation of membrane potential. Permeability is regulated by ion channels.
The differences in permeability of ion is responsible for the generation of membrane potential. Permeability is regulated by ion channels.
Of the four tissue types, only ___ and ___ tissue is excitable.
Of the four tissue types, only muscle and neural tissue is excitable.
tRNA
transfer RNA
Flagella
Sperm motility
Tubulin
Protein subunit of microtubules
Glycocalyx
carbohydrate and protein layer that participates in cell recognition.
G protein
second messenger that mediates cellular responses
Smooth ER
site of synthesis of lipid molecules
Mitochondria
site of aerobic respiration
Centrioles
division of cells following mitosis
Proteasomes
organelle that metabolizes misfolded proteins
First messenger
hormone or neurotransmitter
Diffusion
passive movement of solute down the concentration gradient
Osmosis
the diffusion of water
Active transport
any type of transport across the cell membrane that requires energy as it moves material against the concentration gradient.
Passive transport
any type of transport across the cell membrane that does not require energy
Cotransport
the coupling of the transport of one solute to a second solute
Facilitated diffusion
transport across the cell membrane through a protein channel that does not require ATP.
Primary active transport
direct use of ATP in the transport of a solute.
Secondary active transport
utilization of the energy derived from the primary active transport of one solute for the cotransport of a second solute.
Counter transport
secondary active transport in which substances are moved in the opposite direction.
Symport
secondary active transport in which substances are moved in the same direction
There are two forms of endplasmic reticulum (ER) found in a cell. They are the rough and the smooth ER. What does the rough ER do in a cell?
Produces proteins.
Rough ER is studded with ribosomes attached to specific binding sites on the membrane. Proteins produced by the rough ER are usually destined for incorporation into cell membranes and lysosomal enzymes or for exportation from the cell. The rough ER segregates (rather than combines) these proteins from other components of the cytoplasm and modifies their structure for a specific function. Rough ER does not transport anything through the cell membrane. Rough ER is studded with ribosomes; it does not destroy them.
The Golgi complex, or Golgi bodies, consists of stacks of thin, flattened vesicles or sacs within the cell. These Golgi bodies are found near the nucleus and function in association with the ER. What is one purpose of the Golgi complex?
Receive proteins and other substances from the cell surface by a retrograde transport mechanism.
Recent data suggest that the Golgi apparatus has yet another function; it can receive proteins and other substances from the cell surface by a retrograde transport mechanism. Golgi bodies do not produce bile. They produce secretory, not excretory, granules and they produce large carbohydrate molecules rather than small ones.
In Tay-Sachs disease, an autosomal recessive disorder, hexosaminidase A, which is the lysosomal enzyme needed for degrading the GM2 ganglioside found in nerve cell membranes, is deficient. Although GM2 ganglioside accumulates in many tissues, where does it do the most harm?
Nervous system and retinas.
Although GM2 ganglioside accumulates in many tissues, such as the heart, liver, and spleen, its accumulation in the nervous system and retina of the eye causes the most damage.
The mitochondria are literally the "power plants" of the cell because they transform organic compounds into energy that is easily accessible to the cell. What do the mitochondria do?
Extracts energy from organic compounds.
They do not make energy, but they extract it from organic compounds. Proteasomes are small organelles composed of protein complexes that are thought to be present in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. They are not formed by mitochondria. Mitochondria contain their own DNA and ribosomes and are self-replicating.
The cell membrane is also called what?
Plasma membrane.
The cell membrane is often called the plasma membrane. The nuclear membrane is another type of membrane within the cell. The cell membrane provides receptors for hormones and other biologically active substances; it is not a receptor membrane. A main structural component of the membrane is its lipid bilayer. It is not a bilayer membrane.
Some messengers, such as thyroid hormone and steroid hormones, do not bind to membrane receptors but move directly across the lipid layer of the cell membrane and are carried to the cell nucleus. What do they do at the cell nucleus?
Influence DNA activity.
At the membrane of the cell nucleus both thyroid and steroid hormones cross into the cell nucleus itself where they influence DNA activity. Ion-channel-linked receptors transiently open or close ion channels. Thyroid and steroid hormones act within the cell nucleus to increase transcription of mRNA to alter cell function.
The Krebs cycle provides a common pathway for the metabolism of nutrients by the body. The Krebs cycle forms two pyruvate molecules. Each of the two pyruvate molecules formed in the cytoplasm from one molecule of glucose yields another molecule of what?
ATP.
Each of the two pyruvate molecules formed in the cytoplasm from one molecule of glucose yields another molecule of ATP, which is a special carrier for cellular energy. FAD, or flavin adenine dinucleotide, is a coenzyme of protein metabolism that accepts electrons and is reduced. NADH + H+ is an end product of glycolysis. The electron transport chain oxidizes NADH + H+, and FADH2 and donates the electrons to oxygen, which is reduced to water.
When cells use energy to move ions against an electrical or chemical gradient, the process is called what?
Active Transport.
Active transport is what happens when cells use energy to move ions against an electrical or chemical gradient. Passive transport is another term for diffusion. There is no such thing as neutral transport. Cotransport is when the sodium ion and the solute are transported in the same direction.
Groups of cells that are closely associated in structure and have common or similar functions are called tissues. What are the types of tissue in the human body?
Connective and muscle tissue.
Four categories of tissue exist: (1) epithelium, (2) connective (supportive) tissue, (3) muscle, and (4) nerve. Binding, connecting, and exothelium tissue are not categories of tissue.
Endocrine glands are epithelial structures that have had their connection with the surface obliterated during development. How are these glands described?
Ductless and produce secretions.
These glands are ductless and produce secretions (i.e. hormones) that move directly into the bloodstream. Exocrine glands retain their connection with the surface epithelium from which they originated. This connection takes the form of epithelium-lined tubular ducts through which the secretions pass to reach the surface. Exocytosis occurs when part of the cell membrane ruptures to release particles that are too large to pass through the cell membrane. These cells are ductless, but do not necessarily secrete their contents into the bloodstream.
Each skeletal muscle is a discrete organ made up of hundreds or thousands of muscle fibers. Although muscle fibers predominate, substantial amounts of connective tissue, blood vessels, and nerve fibers are also present. What happens during muscle contraction?
The thick myosin and thin acti filaments slide over each other, causing shortening of the muscle fiber.
Thin and thick filaments are two types of muscle fibers that are responsible for muscle contraction. The thin filaments are composed primarily of actin and the thick filaments are composed of myosin. During muscle contraction, the thick myosin and thin actin filaments slide over each other, causing shortening of the muscle fiber, although the length of the individual thick and thin filaments remains unchanged. When activated by ATP, the cross-bridges swivel in a fixed arc, much like the oars of a boat, as they become attached to the actin filament. During contraction, each cross-bridge undergoes its own cycle of movement, forming a bridge attachment and releasing it, moving to another site where the same sequence of movement occurs. This pulls the thin and thick filaments past each other. The calcium-calmodulin complex is in smooth muscle. It binds to and activates the myosin-containing thick filaments, which interact with actin.
The three main parts of a cell are the nucleus, the ___, and the cell membrane.
Cytoplasm.
When seen under a light microscope, three major components of the cell become evident; the nucleus, the cytoplasm, and the cell membrane.
Bilirubin is a normal major pigment of bile; its excess accumulation within cells is evidenced clinically by a yellowish discoloration of the skin and sclera, a condition called _____.
Jaundice.
When bilirubin collects within the cells, they take on a yellowish color, which is called jaundice.
Cells in mutlicellular organisms need to communicate with one another to coordinate their function and control their growth. The human body has several means of transmitting information between cells, what are they?
Direct communication between adjacent cells, autocrine and paracrine signaling, endocrine or synaptic signaling.
The human body has several means of transmitting information between cells. These mechanisms include direct communication between adjacent cells through gap junctions, autocrine, and paracrine signaling, and endocrine or synaptic signaling. There is no such thing as express communication between cells.
The human body has nondividing cells that have left the cell cycle and are not capable of mitotic division once an infant is born. What are the nondividing cells?
Neurons, Skeletal muscle cells, cardiac muscle cells.
Nondividing cells, such as neurons and skeletal and cardiac muscle cells, have left the cell cycle and are not capable of mitotic division in postnatal life. The cells that produce mucous are capable of mitotic division. Smooth muscle is often called involuntary muscle because it contracts spontaneously or through activity of the autonomic nervous system.
Smooth muscle is often called ___ muscle because it contracts spontaneously or through activity of the autonomic nervous system.
Smooth muscle is often called involuntary muscle because it contracts spontaneously or through activity of the autonomic nervous system.
Three types of muscle tissue exist: skeletal, cardiac, and smooth. Smooth muscle is often called involuntary muscle because it contracts without the person willing it to contract.