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15 Cards in this Set

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8 main types of cell injury
Genetic - gene defects
Nutritional - lack vitamins
Immunologic - aids, autoimmune
Endocrine - excess hormone
Physical agent - trauma
Chemical agent - toxins
Infectious agent - viruses
Hypoxia - CVD
Cell injury that leaves the plasma membrane intact
reversible injury

Also includes swelling, chromatin clumping, autophagy
What characterizes irreversible cell injury?
Defects in plasma membrane, autolysis, nuclear changes: pyknosis, karyolysis, karyorhexis
Name Nuclear markers of cell death and describe them.
Pyknosis: very dense, twisted nucleus

Karyorhexis: dense particles of chromatin

Karyolysis: dissolved nucleus

Other markers include dense calcium bodies in mitochondria
Describe the affects of ischemia on the cell.
-Oxidative phosphorylation stops
-Glycogen and creatine phosphate stores used up
-ATP depletion
-Inability to maintain ion gradients
-pH decreases and chromatin condenses
-Increased intracellular calcium
-Increased Ca activates proteases, lipases which further hurt cell structure
-Also activates ATPases which further deplete ATP
-Also activates endonucleases which condense and hurt DNA
-Coagulative necrosis if flow not restored
If flow is restored to an ischemic area what process can further injure cells?
Free radical oxidation

Lipid peroxidation, protein damage, DNA damage
What are the processes of altered cell growth? Describe them.
Agenesis: failure of an organ or tissue to develop

Hypoplasia: incomplete development of an organ or tissue

Dysplasia: disordered cell growth associated with congential anomalies or pre-malignant growths

Hypertrophy: Increased size but not number of cells

Hyperplasia: Increased number of cells
What processes does the cell utilize to adapt to different needs and stimuli? Describe them and give an example of the stimulus.
Atrophy: reduction in cell size often due to ischemia or disuse.

Hypertrophy: increase in cell size in response to high use or physiologic need such as pregnancy.

Involution: reduction in cell number, very important during fetal development, apoptosis.

Hyperplasia: Increase in cell number, also do to use, mammary tissue during lactation.

Metaplasia: change from one cell type to another due to a need for new characteristics. If repeated trauma is experienced in muscle it can ossify.
What is the result for a cell which is pushed beyond the limit of adaptation?
Necrosis
What are the differences between necrosis and apoptosis?
Necrosis is unprogrammed and often geographic while apoptosis is programmed and can happen anywhere.
What gene ratio controls the dichotomy of cell survival versus apoptosis?
Bcl-2/Bax

Bcl-2 promotes cell survival, Bax promotes apoptosis.
Caspases?
Caspases are the molecules that carry out apoptosis when Bax exceeds the control of Bcl-2. Caspase activators cleave procaspase molecules which then become caspases which begin the apoptotic cascade.
Apoptosis is activated by what environmental stimuli?
Developmental morphogenesis
Radiation
Immune system regulation
Viruses
Cancers
Toxins
What is meant by "losing the ladder" in a DNA Western Blot?
DNA from a cell usually provides nice cleavage plains which upon western blot form a ladder appearance on the gel. DNA from an apoptotic cell has been thoroughly cleaved apart by proteases and endonucleases so that a solid uninterrupted line is observed on the western blot.
You observe a swollen cell featuring large densities in the mitochondria, the rupture of some lysosomes, and a nucleus showing very condensed clumps of chromatin. Can this cell recover from its injury?
No, the cell is showing sign of autolysis and karyorhexis which are markers of irreversible cell damage.