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103 Cards in this Set

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Hypovolemic shock
State of decreased fluid volume.Caused by, dehydration, bleeding, fluid shifts. Treatment is fixed on volume replacement and correcting underlying causes
obstructive shock
Shock associated with physical obstruction of a greta vessel, or bodily pathway. Treatment focuses on removing obstruction by various methods and further preventing condition
Cardiogenic shock
Inadequate cicrulation due to the failure of the ventricles
S/S- Anxiety, AMS,hypotension,JVD,rapid deep respirations, Oliguria, pulmonary edema
TX- Fluid replacement,Inotropic agents,Catheterization,intra-aorta balloon pump
Crohns Disease
A disorder of the GI system that is thought to be autoimmune in nature ,where the body attacks the intestines and causes inflammation. this leads to thickening of the intestinal wall, and results in ruputres and fistulas.
S/S-fistulas,abdominal fullness,pain in bowels,constipation,diarrhea,hemochezia,weight loss,skin rashtenesmus (painful bowel movement).
TX-Aminosalicylates(5A's),bowel resection,correction of fistulas.
obstructive shock
Shock associated with physical obstruction of a great vessel, or bodily pathway. Treatment focuses on removing obstruction by various methods and further preventing condition
Cardiogenic shock
Inadequate cicrulation due to the failure of the ventricles
S/S- Anxiety, AMS,hypotension,JVD,rapid deep respirations, Oliguria, pulmonary edema
TX- Fluid replacement,Inotropic agents,Catheterization,intra-aorta balloon pump
Airway Obstruction
Blockage of the airway
S/S respiratory failure/distress, wheezing, FBAO,croup,epiglotitis, etc.
TX-Removal of offending object, treatment of underlying cause. Initiating an advanced airway device, supplemental, O2
Asthma
Chronic medical condition Characterized by constriction of the bronchioles, airway obstruction, and underlying inflamation
S/S-Wheezing, nighttime coughing,shortness of breath without exertion,throat clearing type cough, etc.
TX-Albuterol or other corticosteroidial treatment, Leukotriene modifiers,breathing therapy,antihistamines,trigger avoidance
COPD
Destruction of the alveolar sacs and excess mucus production/buildup.2 main processes, Emphysema, and chronic bronchitis
S/S-ongoing cough(often overproductive) Shortness of breath,wheezing,chest tightness.
TX.-No cure. Lifestyle change,staying active, acts to slow/stop further disease process
Pneumonia
Inflammatory illnes of the lung caused by bactreia,virus,fungi. or parasites. can be caused by aspiration.
S/S-Cough producing yellow/green phlegm accompanied by a fever and chills,shortness of breath,hemoptysis,headache, cyanosis,loss of appetite etc.
TX-Oral antibiotics, fluids, and rest. Elderly/children and immuno-compromised PT's. may need hospitalization.PT's.who have a chronic case of pneumonia may need hospitalization as well.
Pleural Effusion
Excess fluid(pus,blood,chyle,serous) that accumulates in the pleural cavity.
S/S-Decreased motion of chest wall on affected side,diminished breath sounds,hyporesonnance, tracheal deviation. Must confirm with X-Ray.
TX-Removal of fluid, treat underlying cause.
Pneumothorax (tension)
A complete collapse of the lung occuring when air enters the chest cavity but does not escape.
S/S- sudden chest pain,shortness of breath,chest tightness, cyanosis,tachycardia, tachypnea,JVD
TX-needle decompression (pre-hospital), chest tube will be emplaced in the hospital setting.
Pleuritis
Inflamation of the pleura,usually from fluid build-up between the pleural layers.
can be caused by cancer,trauma, drug reactions,infectious process
S/S-pain in the chest specifically upon inspiration,shortness of breath, and a stabbing sensation.
TX-Splinting of the external chest wall, and repair or removal of the underlying cause, are the the most definitive treatments.
Pulmonary embolism
A blockage of a pulmonary artery
S/S-cough, bloody sputum,JVD,sharp stabbing pain, hypotension, shock
TX-Fibrynolitic therapy, repair of clot damage, airway management, often lengthy hospitalization
Pleurodynia (Bornholm Disease)
An uncommon complication of the coxsackievirus B(pronounced cock-sack-ke) the virus targets the striated muscle in the chest causing the muscle to necrose, rarely causes pleurisy.Affects children (male) most frequently
S/S-sudden extreme chest pain,abdominal pain,fever,malaise and headaches,
TX-None specific. NSAIDs and supportive care
Primary pulmonary hypertension
A rare lung disorder where the blood pressure in the pulmonary artey rises far above normal levels for no apparent reason.
S/S-Fatigue,dyspnea,dizziness, fainting,---pedal edema,cyanaosis of the lips,and chest pain(late signs)
TX-Primary treatment is the use of calcium channel blockers, other drugs that vasodilate are used at times.
Adult resiratory distress syndrome(ARDS)
Sudden life threatening lung failure due to inflamation of alveoli causing them to fill with fluid and collapse.
S/S-Dyspnea,tachypnea,sever hypoxemia,cyanosis,abnormal X-rays.
TX-Focuses on maintaing O2 levels in a normal range and mechanical ventilation to maintain resiratory effort at normal levels without fatigue on the patient
Angina pectoris (Stable)
Stable angina pectoris is charactorized by chest pain with a predictable amount of exertion. The pain is caused by ischemia to the myocardium,from a partial blockage of a coronary artery
S/S-uncomfortable pressure in ches, fullness, squeezing pain in the center of the chest, that my also be felt in the back,neck,shoulder or arm.
TX- stable angina usually responds well to nitroglycerine, and oxygen as well as decreasing the myocardial demand for oxygen (decreased cardiac workload)
Angina Pectoris (unstable)
Chest pain manifested by decreased oxygen to the heart as a result of a more complete occlusion to a coronary artery, causing sever ischemia.The pain is brought on unexpectedly, and usually occurs while at rest. It can be caused by a coronary artery spasm (prinzmetals angina)
S/S- The discomfort is more sever than stable angina as well as more prolonged.
TX-treatment for unstable angina requires more invasive procedures that are carried out in a hospital, due to the fact that it does not respond well to nitro..Angioplasty to remove the blockage, is the most definitve treatment for unstable angina
Acute Myocardial Infarction
Occurs when a coronary artery is blocked. This results in absent blood flow to the myocardium,causing an area of the heart muscle to die.
S/S-clenched fist over chest(levine sign), pain in chest,arm,jaw,neck,back,and epigastrium.Symptoms are usually gradual onset(over a few minutes)women and diabetics can present with symptoms of abdominal pain, or be fairly asymptomatic.
TX- M.O.N.A.regimine,Defibrillation my be needed, TCP, and drug therapy for arrythmias that can occur.O2 demand needs to be decreased to the myocardium and and the workload of the heart needs to be decreased as well.airway management may be necessary. CPR if patient becomes asystolic.
CHF (Left ventricular failure)
heart failure in which the left ventricle fails to contract forcefully enough to maintain normal cardiac output and adequate peripheral perfusion.
S/S-Pulmonary congestion and edema causing crackles,breathlessness,dyspnea,orthopnea,pallor,sweating, and peripheral vasoconstriction and a prominent 3rd heart sound in older adults.
TX-meperidine,morphine,ACE inhibitors,CCB's to reduce afterload,diuretics,digitalis,and rest.
CHF (right ventricular failure)
congestive heart failure with the right ventricle being impaired.
S/S- JVD, enlarged liver(hepatomegaly) and dependant edema( pedal edema/pitting edema) Caused by the blood not being ejected forcefully enough by the right ventricle.Resulting in a fluid back up in the systemic circulation
TX- consists of diuretics to void excess fluids, reducing excess weight and workload of the heart. Most treatment is focused on correcting the cause of the failure and reducing risk factors in the patient who already has the condition.
Cardiac Tamponade
The compression of the heart that occurs when blood or other fluids build up between the myocardium and the pericardium preventing normal contraction of the heart.Can be acute onset from trauma or chronic from a disease process.
S/S-anxiety,chest pain,JVD,discomfort,fainting,low blood pressure,weak or absent pulse,faint heart sounds,pulsus paradoxus
TX- the only definitive treatment is pericardiocentesis.The patient may be given O2 in the prehospital setting to reduce the myocardial workload.
Aortic dissection
A condition in which is there is bleeding into and along the wall of the aorta.Usually occuring along the chest (type A)portion of the vessel, but also occurs in the abdominal (Type B) region.
S/S-Sudden and sever chest pain often described as ripping or stabbing. Onset is sudden and full force,with no relief.Pain may radiate to the neck,shoulder,jaw abdomen or hips,Radiating to the arms and legs as the dissection gets worse.
TX- Hospitalization and surgery are required. Prehospital is aimed at reducing blood pressure and workload of the heart and pain managment.
Muscular dystrophy
A group of disorders that involve muscle weakness and loss of muscle tissue that gets worse over time.
S/S-Retardation,muscle weakness that gets worse,difficulty using one muscle group,drooling,ptosis,difficulty walking.Scoliosis,claw hand,clubfoot.
TX- supportive care. There is no cure for the disease.corticosteroids may be given to children to keep them walking as long as possible.Maintain activity.
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
rapidly progressive,invarible fatal neurologic disease,in which the upper and lower motor neurons degenerate and die.This leads to respiratory failure at the end stages of the disease. Without assisted ventilations the patient will die.
S/S-widespread loss of motor function, which progressively gets worse. Onset is fairly slow with rapid degeneration.
TX- there is no cure, only supportive care.Ventilatory assistance is required at the end stage of the disease.
Myasthenia Gravis
Neuromuscular, autoimmune disease caused by circulating antibodies that block acetylcholine receptors
S/S-Fatigue,ptosis,abnormal gait,slurred speach,and generalized weakness.
TX-Cholinesterase inhibitors,immunosuppressant drugs,surgical thymectomy-(removal of the thymus gland) are the most definitve treatments.
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
A group of inherited disorders marked by loose joints and easily damaged blood vessels There are 6 major types and at least 5 minor types of the disease.
S/S-Bruising, loose joints, and hyperplastic skin.The main problem of the disease is that it causes mutations of collagen which leads to symptoms assosciated with EDS. Problems with heart valves and internal organs being the most sever manifestation.
TX-No cure. Supportive care by a specialist is usual treatment.
Guillian-barre syndrome
An autoimmune disorder characterized by sudden onset weakness. It presents with tingling and weakness in the legs and usually spreads rapidly to the upper limbs and throughout the periphery.The autoimmune response is thought to be triggered by a viral infection. Also known to be triggered by immunizations.
S/S- Weakness in the lower periphery quickly spreading to the upper limbs and throughout the entire peripheral system
TX- No known cure. Immunoglobulin therapy has shown the greatest results in alleviating the disorder and curbing long term effects.
Hyperthyroidism
Hyperthyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland is overactive and produces too much thyroid hormone (thyroxine-T4- and triiodothyrine T3).Can be caused by graves disease,too much iodine, tumors of the testes, and taking large amounts of thyroid hormone
S/S-Difficulty concentrating,fatigue,goiter, heat intolerance,weight loss and sweating,hair loss,hypertension
TX-Thyroidectomy,radioactive iodine,antithyroid medications.
Thyroid storm
A life threatenting condition caused by untreatreated thyrotoxicosis
S/S-Alterd LOC,diarrhea,fever,pounding heart,shaking,sweating.
TX-hospitalization,and drug therapy with med's aimed at reducing circulating thyroid hormone. Methimazole is one such drug used to treat the condition
Thyrotoxicosis
Thyrotoxicosis is an excess of thyroid hormone in the body.In conjuction with the excess thyroid hormone a LOW level of thyroid stimulating hormone is in the bloodstream. This is due to the pittuary gland sensing that there is enough thyroid hormone in the system and it stops secreting TSH(negative feedback) that is why testing for the disorder focuses on testing the TSH levels in the blood. It is generally caused by hyperthyroidism. Graves disease being the most common precipitating factor in that disorder.
S/S-irritability,fatigue,nervousness,weight loss,insomnia,hair loss,intolerance to heat,decreased menstrual flow,muscle aches,increased bowel movements,bulging eyes.
TX-Drug treatment is the primary means of treatment. Tapazole, and propylthiouracil are the two primary drugs used.Radioactive iodine is also a treatment option,as well as surgery.Treatment can vary by age of patient.
Myxedema
A clinical syndrome in which the deficiency or absence of thyroid hormone slows bodily metabolic process. Usually a slow progression. With myxedema hypothyroidsm, there is a state of nonpitting edema to the soft tissues of a patient.Most common in elderly women, and is usually precipitated by infection,medication or other metabolic related stress..
S/S-lethargy,weight gain,thinning hair,menorrhagia,generalized weakness,headaches,constipation,muscle and joint weakness, just to name a few.
TX- Treatment focuses on correcting underlying cause, and dealing with symptoms.There are several varieties of drugs used in treating the condition.
Esophageal varices (disruption)
The rupture of the varices (veins) of the esophagus as a result of portal vein hypertension, that can cause life threatening hemmorage. The leading cause of portal hypertension is cirrhosis of the liver.
S/S-hematemesis,melena,hypotension,tachycardia,and shock.
TX-Banding the varices with constricting bands,sclerotherapy,Distal splenorenal shunt, and liver transplant are viable treatment options and all are based on severity and stage of the disease process
Pericarditis
Inflamation of the pericardium
S/S-Sharp stabbing pain,postional relief of pain or is made worse when lying flat and made better when leaning forward,pain raidiating to the back or arm, pain is often made worse by deep breaths
TX-NSAID, and narcotic pain relief are the primary tretament options. If the inflamation results in fluid build up between the pericardium, pericardiocentesis will be the required treatment.
costochrondiritis
An inflamation of the cartilage of that joins the ribs to the sternum. Most commonly experienced by sufferer's of fibromyalgia,but not exclusive to that disesa process.
S/S- Sharp chest pain,burning rib pain,pain to ribs upon palpation,pain that increases upon exertion,s/s of a heart attack.
TX-NSAID therapy is the primary treatment option
Mitral valve prolapse
The ineffectual closing of the mitral vale. This allows blod to regurgitate back inot the left atrium when ventricular contraction occurs.
S/S-Usually none. When they are present they are palpations,chest pain,anxiety,migraines, and possibly stroke,a clicking and murmur sound will be heard upon auscultation.
TX- None is usually required. In extreme cases surgery and medication may be required. The primary medication prescribed would be antibiotics to treat bacteria prior to any procedure taking place.
Thrombotic stroke
Caused by a blocked atery in the brain.The clot of this type of stroke is formed in the actual area of the infarct, usually by ahtersclorosis. This leads to ischemic areas in the brain.These clots left untreated will lead to infarct.
S/S-drooping on one side of body,loss of motor function on opposite side of affected area, sever headache, loss of speech.
TX- If caught in time fibrinolytic drugs to dissolve clot are the most definitive treatment
Embolic stroke
A stroke caused by a clot that was formed in a different are of the body that then traveled through the blood stream to the brain and caused a blockage of the brain in that area.
S/S- Same as thrombotic stroke.
TX- Same as thrombotic stroke. Treatment is aimed at dissolving the clot in a timely fashion.
Hemorragic stroke
When a diseased blood vessel within the brain bursts allowing blood to leak into the cranial vault.
S/S- Bleeding will lead to ICP,hypotension, combative behavior,and classic signs and symptoms of stroke.
TX-Is aimed at reapir of the bleeding vessel and treating the damaged area.
Transient Ischemic attack
Also called a "mini stroke". TIA'sare a precursor to a more severe stroke. They occur when a clot tempoarily occludes an artery.A short duration between 1 and 5 minutes is common with no lasting injury to the brain
S/S- the same as other strokes.Numbness to face,weakness on one side,vision trouble etc.
TX- No immediate treatment is required. TIA's are a precursor to a sever stroke, so seek medical help immediately
Meningitis
Potentially life threatening infection of the meninges. caused by bacteria or a virus. Bacterial being the more severe form of the disease.
S/ Flu like symptoms are common with both types, but more so with viral forms of the disease.Progressing to uncontrolled vomiting,seizures,dysphonia,trouble walking,and swallowing, and excessive sleepiness.
TX-For bacterial forms antibiotics and hospitalization are required and treating the fever and other underlying symptoms.For viral forms this is not usually necessary.Treating the symptoms are usally all that are required.
Brudzinski's sign
flexion of the hips and knees when the neck is flexed anteriorly.
Kernigs sign
When the patients knee is flexed, the examiner attempts to straighten the knee, if the examiner elicits a pain response at 135 degree's into the attemp, it is a positive Kernigs sign.
Encephalitis
An acute infection that is viral in nature,that causes swelling of the brain.Predominately carried by mosquitos.
S/S-flu like aches,fever,fatigue,sore throat,unsteady gait,photophoia.
Seizures and paralysis are seen in advanced stages and in more severe forms
TX-Most forms are treated symptomatically. Herpes forms of the disease are treated with Acyclovir,and Foscavir. La Crosse encphalitis is treated with Rebetol, and Virazole
Cerebral abcess
Occurs when bacteria or fungi infect part of the brain. Swelling and inflamation develope.Infected brain cells,white blood cells,live and dead bacteria collect in an area of the brain(cerebral in this case) and a membrane forms around this area creating a mass.
S/S-confusion,aphasia,drowsiness,fever,chills,coma,loss of muscle function....
TX-Some cases will only require medication. Most cases will require surgical intervention.
Grand mal seizure
Also called tonic-clonic. It involves muscle rigidity combined with violent muscle contractions, combined with a loss of consciousness.
S/S- Aura(taste,smell,or visual warning)LOC,incontinence,apnea,confusion and the seizure activity itself.
TX-Anticonvulsants can be given after the patient stops seizing or, slightly before when aura is present.Diazepam is one such drug option. Protect airway, and protect patient from injury.
Simple partial siezure
Abnormal electrical activity in the brain.May present with clonic activity,activity might be limited to one side of body,forced turning of the head,lip smacking,chewing without cause,forced turning of the eyes,numbness,hallucinations
TX-Protect the person from injury, protect airway, if known cause, remove underlying problem. Anticonvustants
Absent seizure
Most common in children.Brief episodes of staring. The patient is unaware that it has occured and there is no LOC. there is no aura type warning that siezure activity is about to occur. Eye blinking,hand rubbing and mouth movemen are the most typical muscle activity in this type. When movement is involved they are considered "complex absent siezure's''.
TX- none necessary.
Diabetes mellitus
A disease charachterized by the absence or relative deficiency of insulin. In type 2 diabetes the patient typically is insulin resistant.
S/S-polydipsia,polyphagia,polyuria, weight loss,general malaise.Long term complications can lead to kidney failure and blindness
TX- Treatment focuses on insulin therapy and lifestyle changes. These changes are specifically geared toward diet and weight control.
Hyperglycemia
An elevated serum level of glucose
S/S-increased thirst.polyuria,headaches, fatigue
TX-Drink more water,medication,lifestyle alteration
Hypoglycemia
Low serum glucose
S/S-irritability,intense hunger,trembling,weakness, and palpitations
TX-Supplying the patient with a sugar rich food such as juice,soda, candy, or with prepared glucose solutions.
DKA
A life threatening condition that results from a lack of insulin in the body.Which leads to hyperglycemia and a resulting multi hormonal response/release.That in turn causes the body to burn excessive amounts of fat that causes the blood to become acidic.
S/S-lethargy,weakness,thirst,polyuria,"fruity odor" breath,leg cramps,shortness of breath, altered LOC,coma,death
TX- realtively high dose's of Insulin, and lots of FLUIDS are the most definitive treatments
Hepatic Encephalopathy
Brain and nervous system damage that occurs as a complication of liver disorders.
S/S-confusion,coma,agitation,delerium,dementia,seizures,tremors
TX-Stop all GI bleeding,correct causing agent/process,life support, avoiding drugs are especially toxic in the liver.
Uremic Encphalopathy
Brain and nervous system damage that result from renal insuffiency/failure.
S/S-Myoclonic jerks,asterixis,Dysarhtria,agitation,Tetany,seizures,coma,confusion
TX-dialysis is the primary treatment. Supportive care to maintain life, and drug therapy to correct lethal accumulative effects toxins that have built up in the body system.
Hypernatremia
Elevated sodium serum level. Associated with a greater than 50% mortality rate.
S/S-Thirst,seizures,coma,Cva injury, and cardiac dysrythmias
TX-Replacement of free water and correcting TBW disturbance. Treatment with other elctrolyte substances must be done with care.
Hyponatremia
Decreased serum level of sodium
S/S-AMS,lethargy,confusion,signs of cerebral edema,seizyres,coma and death.
TX-Correcting the hypovolemic state,and SLOWLY reestablishing proper sodium levels.
Hypercalcemia
Low serum level of calcium
S/S-constipation,muscle tremors,pain,nausea,kidney stones,polydipsia,polyuria,muscular atrophy,dementia,coma.
TX-If caused by hypoerthyroidism, removal of the thyroid.Also calcitonin,dialysis,fluids,steroids (glucocorticoids)
Hypocalcemia
Low serum level of calcium
S/S-Muscle spasm,parathesias,convulsions,laryngospasm and prolonged QT interval.
TX-Treat underlying cause and supportive care
Hyperkalemia
An elevated serum level of potassium. Can be caysed for several reasons. Diseases of the adrenal glands and Renal failure will lead to the most devastating effects of the disorder
S/S-muscle weakness,cardiac dysrythmias,parathesis,nausea and fatigue.
TX-lower potassium intake,discontinue medications causing effects,IV glucose and insulin,IV calcium,Sodium Bicarbonate, and diuretins. Dialysis for renal failure.
Hypokalemia
Low serum level of potassium
S/S-Muscle aches,cramps, and weakness. Possible ECG changes.
TX-PO administration of potassium,Iv infusion,and correcting underlying cause of condition.
Wernickes Encphelopathy
A clinical manifestation as a result thiamine/B-1 deficiency. Most commonly seen in alchoholics. Also common in parenteral dependant feeding patients,Aids,and can result from hyperemesis gravadium.
S/S-Triad of symptoms are mental confusion,ataxia,opthalmoplegia.
TX-Airway,breathing, and circulatory support. Administration of thiamine.Supportive care.
Korsakoff pshychosis
Mental disorder that affects alcoholics.In non-alcoholics it is termed "korsakoff's syndrome".The causes are the same as wernicke's encphalopathy, but with the main difference being the effects on the memory.
S/S- gait ataxia, retrograde/antegrade amnesia. Complete amnesia,apathy.
Tx- Thiamine replacement,treta all underlying causes, and supportive care.
Heat exhaustion
The point at which the body begins to become hyperthermic from being exposed to excessive heat or activity in a hot enviroment.Can result from loss of fluids in a temperate enviroment as well
S/S-heavy sweating,muscle cramps,paleness,tiredness,weakness,excessive thirst,nausea,vomiting,fainting
TX-cool non-alcoholic drinks,rest,move to cool enviroment,passive cooling measures
Heat Stroke
Excessive hyperthermia with accompanying neurologic and physical symptoms.
S/S-Hyperthermia,hot flushed dry skin,tachycardia,Altered LOC,confusion,lethargy,seizure,coma,death.
TX-Agrresive cooling measures,remove pt. rom sun and heat, protect airway,replenish fluids PO or IV.Cardiac monitoring. Start cooling measures slowly and proceed accordingly.
Hypothermia
A state of decreased body temperature.
S/S-shivering,bradycardia,drowsiness,confusion,pale cold skin,lethargy, cardiac arrest.
TX-ABC's,warm person,give warm fluids,remove person from cold enviroment. If in cardiac arrest, perform cpr.Do not rub frostbitten or chillblained body area's or warm aggresively
Hepatitis
Inflamation of the liver which is caused by viruses,alcohol,acetaminophen overdose,auto-immune response.
S/S-RUQ pain and swelling,fatigue,dark urine,jaundice,nausea,wasting,general itching,low grade fever.
TX-Diet,and supportive care. Treatment will focus on individuals symptoms and type of hepatitisthe patient has
Cholecystitis
Inflamation of the gall bladder usually resulting from a galstone blocking the cystic duct.
S/S-abdominal pain that usually lasts more than 6 hours,fever and nausea.
TX-Usually the gallbladder is removed.patient may be hospitalized and kept, NPO for a long period of time.NG tube is commonly inserted fro the purpose of keeping the stomache empty
Gastritis
An inflammation of the lining of the stomach. Can be caused by several process, H-pylori,other bacterias,aspirin..etc..etc..
S/S-Pain in the LUQ, burning, "gnawing" pain,belching,vomiting,bleeding,chest pain,diaphoresis.
TX-Avoid triggers,treat underlying cause, supportive care.
Peptic Ulcer Disease
A condition resulting in a hole in the gut lining of the stomach,duodenum,or the esophagus.
S/S-Pain in the affected area,bloody stool/vomit,feeling of indigestion that persists.
TX-Correct problems that lead to bleeding and blockage, pain relief,remove cuasitive agents, treat indigestion,antibiotics to treat the h-pylori bacteria often responsible
Enteritis
Inflamation of the small intestine caused by bacterias,viruses,crohns disease,radiation therapy, and NSAIDS
S/S-Diarrhea,fever,dehydration,abdominal pain,and sever stomach cramping
TX-Mild cases need no treatment, other cases may be treated by rehydration,medication for diarrhea and meds to treat the bacterial infection.
Ileitis
also called inflammatory bowel disease, crohns disease. A form of crohns disease that effects the ilieum from an autoimmune response.
S/S-cramps,fever,fatigue,watery diarrhea,joint pain,kidney stones,GI bleeding,constipation,tenesmus
TX-Aminosalicylates,corticosteroids,antibiotics,monoclonal antibody drugs,surgery.
Colitis
Inflamation of the colon(large intestine)
S/S-Abdominal pain,diarrhea,bloody stool,tenesmus, fever,chills,and inflammation.
TX-
Gastroenteritis
A condition that causes inflammation of the stomach and intestines. It can be caused by bacteria, bacterial toxins and viruses.
S/S-each bacteria nad virus cause different symptoms but all end up with diarrhea.
TX-Replace lost fluids,remove underlying cause,antibiotic or anti microbial treatment. SUpportive care.
Inflammatory bowel disease
A group of disorders in which the intestines become inflamed,probably as a result of an autoimmune reaction.
S/S-Abdominal cramps,fever,loss of appetite,anemia, and bloody diarrhea.
TX-Antibiotics,immunesuppresive drugs,diet modification,corticosteroids and Anti-TNF agents.
Diverticulitis
A condition in which the diverticuli in the colon rupture.This results in infection to the surrounding tissues and fistulas forming.
TX-Antibiotic therapy, antispasmodic drugs, dietary restrictions(avoidance of food with seeds and nuts), and surgery.
Appendicitis
Inflammation of the appendix.
S/S- RLQ pain,low grade fever,nausea,rebound tenderness, severe cramps, loss of appetite.
TX- Surgical removal of the appendix
Mallory Weiss Syndrome
A tear or laceration in the mucous membrane at the point where the esophagus and the stomach meet.Usually caused by vomiting.
S/S-blood in stool,hemochezia,bloody vomit.
TX-intra-arterial infusion of petressin,polidocanol, and rarely surgical repair
Syncope
A brief loss of consiousness due to inadequate cerbral perfusion.
S/S- person will pass out and fall down
TX- unless trauma results from fall, treatment is not very essential. If the patient does not regain consiousness or suffers trauma, airway protection and attention to ABC's. Supportive care.
Orthostatic Hypotension
Excessive decrease in blood pressure when a person stands up,resulting in decreased blood flow to the brain
S/S-Dizziness,cofusion,light headedness,blurred vision and a 10 to 20 mhg change in bp from ositional change.
TX-.Increase fluids,patient lie down, increase sodium,hormone therapy, and other drug therapies aimed toward increasing blood volume and pressure.
Endometriosis
A condition where uterine tissue grows in other areas of the body.
S/S-pain with: sex,bowel movements,lower abdomen following menstration,during menstration. Premenstrual spotting,infertility,irregular bleeding.
TX-Progesterone,pseudopregnancy,analgesics,antigonadotropins,and surgery.
Carotid Sinus Stimulation
To stimulate the corotid sinus through maual manipulation.Generally a sinus "massage" is performed to treat tachycardic conditions. care must be taken not to dislodge any palques that might be built up in the vessel.
Metabolic syncope cause
caused by extreme exertion and usually due to heat injury. Occuring secondary to bradycardia and sudden reflex vasodilation
neurologic syncope causes
Most commonly caused by vertebrobasilar TIA and subclavian steal syndrome, both of which are actually vascualr in nature. Since the syndromes are brought on by onset neuro disorder to cause the symptoms they are considered neurologinc in nature.
Tension headaches
condition involving pain in the head,scalp, or neck, related to muscle tightness
S/S-dull pressure,tight "vise" like band around head, pain is usually general in location and not specific to any one area.
TX-Trigger avoidance, NSAID, stress relief activities,comfort measures (hot or cool shower).
Migraines
Sever headache believed to be brought about by interruptions in neural apthways within the brain itself, that has a complex and severe affect on the bloodflow of the brain. This in turn leads to a more severe symptomatic occurance
S/S- nauseavomiting,an "aura" of light or "haze",eye pain,tunnel vision,
TX- no specific cure exsists, patients are treated symptomatically with supportive care. Several medications are made to treat this condition
cluster headache
one sided pain that includes stuffy nose, and tearing of the eyes,Occur repeatedlyeveryday at the same time for weeks then go away
S/S-Sharp pain that occurs shortly after falling asleep, pain generally occurs around one eye, and is described as sharp,steady, and burning.
TX-No cure. Trigger avoidance, and symptomtic treatment are the focus of treatment options.
Subarachnoid hemmorhage
Bleeding in the subarachnoid space.
S/S-Pain in neck after a "popping" sensation,AMS, Decreased LOC,seizure,stiff neck,nausea and vomiting,diplopia, and stroke like symptoms.
TX-Repair cause of bleeding, treat life threats,surgical repair of damaged area, treat symptoms.
Intracerebral hemorrhage
Bleeding in the brain caused by a ruptured vessel.
S/S-Abnormal sense of taste,aphasia,ataxia,headache,dystonia,facial paralysis,parathesia,seizure,hypotension,occular disturbance,stroke symptoms.
TX-surgical repair of cause,corticosteroids/diruetics,analgesics, and symptomatic treatment.
Intracranial mass
A space occupying lesion within the cranial vault.
S/S- Headache, projectile vomiting,s/s of sinus headache,stroke like symptoms on side of brain affected by mass. CT scan and MRI can detect in neuro exam.
TX-Removal of mass, and therapy aimed at reducing mass.
Preeclampsia
High blood pressure and protein in the urine that developes after the 20th week of pregnancy.
S/S-extreme hypertension,headaches,sudden weight gain,abdominal pain,nausea/vomiting.
TX- Delivery of baby,bed rest,hospitalization,blood pressure medication.
Eclampsia
Seizures during pregnancy not related to a brain conditions. Usually caused by high blood pressure.
S/S-Extremely high blood pressure,headaches,and vision changes,seizures,LOC
TX-Delivery of baby is most definitve treatment.Management of disorder until that can be accomplished.Mag sulfate is drug of choice to treat seizures.Drug pressure medication to alleviate symptoms of that disorder.
Ectopic Pregnancy
A pregnancy that occurs outside the uterus.
S/S-Amenorrhea,breast tenderness,abnormal vaginak bleeding,pain in lower back and pelvic region.
TX-Terminating and removing abnormal pregnancy,fluids,blood tranfusion,and supportive care.
Abruptio placenta
Premature seperation of the placenta from the uterus.
S/S-abdominal pain,back pain,vaginal bleeding.
TX-IV fluids,blood transfusion.Delivery of fetus if at a proper developemental stage.
Temporal arteritis
Inflammation and damage to the blood vessels that supply the head area,specifically the large arteries that branch from the neck.
S/S-excessive sweating,fever,general malaise,bleeding gums,hearing loss,face pain.
TX-Reduce tissue damage due to lack of blood flow.Corticosteroids and NSAID therapy, as well as immunosupressant drugs.
Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome
Recurring acts of vomiting often accompanied by migraines, and abdominal pain.
S/S-Vomiting...lots of vomiting...sometimes with a headache and tummyache.
TX-Antiemetic medication,NSAID for headaches and supportive care, and IV fluid therapy.
Placenta Previa
Complication of pregnancy when the placenta covers the womb either partially or completely.A marginal placenta is where it against the cervix but does not cover it.
S/S-painless vaginal bleeding that occurs near the end of the 2nd or the bginning of the 3rd trimester.
TX-Bed rest,transfusion for loss of blood,.Goals focus on carrying pregnancy as close to term as possible and then c-section delivery is to be performed.
Pelvic inflammatory disease
Bacterial infection usually caused by STD bacteria. Most often caused by sexual contact,though some bacteria can enter the body other than from sexual contact (i.e. gynecological procedures, and poor hygene).
S/S-Fever,pain in the abdomen and pelvis,vaginal discharge,painful urination,painful intercourse,multiple sex partners,previous STD.
TX-IV and oral antibiotics. Supportive care.
Ruptured Ovarian Cyst
A sac filled with fluid that forms on or inside an ovary. Usually caused by an egg that forms a follicle but the follicle fails to break open and release the egg. Instead the egg stays in the follicle and forms a cyst.
S/S-pain, abnormal uterine bleeding,abdominal bloating or swelling,pelvic pain, painful intercourse.
TX-most cases ned no treatment, problematic cysts that wont resolve on their own or cysts that rupture might need to be removed by surgical intervention.
Cystitis
A bacterial infection of the bladder or lower urinary tract. May be acute or chronic.
S/S-painful urination (dysuria),frequent urination,abdominal pain,foul smelling urine,nocturia,pressure in lower pelvis.
TX-Antibiotic and supportive therapies.
Endometrosis
Abnormal growth of uterine tissue in other areas of the body.
S/S-Pian in following areas: during menstration,lower abdomen,bowel movements,during and after sex, in back during menstrual cycle. Premenstrual spotting,infertility.
Tx-surgery,pseudopregnancy,antigonadatropins,analgesics.
Endometritis
Inflammation or irritation to the lining of the uterus-(endometrium).
S/S-Abdominal distention,abnormal vaginal bleeding,vaginal discharge,general malaise,fever,uterine pain.
TX-Antibiotics,fluid therapy,treatment of sexual partners, and rest.
Uterine rupture
Any tear in the uterus. Leads to the fetus and placental material spilling into the abdominal cavity of the mother.Most prevelant in vaginal birth after c-section.
S/S-Sever loacalized pain,abnormailities of fetal heart rate,vaginal bleeding,possible death of mother/fetus.
TX-Rapid surgical intervention,c-section, hysterectomy,and hospitalization.