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16 Cards in this Set

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Addition Reaction

Number of substituents on carbon increase.

Elimination Reaction

Number of substituents on carbon decreases

Substitution reaction

Number of substituents remain the same.

Breaking bonds symmetrically

Use fish hook arrows that transfer 1 electron. Associated with radical reactions. Homolytic bond breakage.

Non-symmetrical bond break

Bond breaks towards more electronegative atom. Full head arrow, moves electron pairs, associated with polar reactions.

Nucleophile

Electron rich atoms or molecules. Lewis base. Have an electron pair to share.

Epectrophile

Electron deficient atoms or molecules. Lewis Acid. Can accept a pair of electrons.

Spontaneous reaction

Gibbs free energy is negative


- Enthalpy (♢H°) is negative


- Entropy (♢S°) is positive

Non spontaneous reaction

Gibbs free energy is positive


- Enthalpy (♢H°) is positive


- Entropy (♢S°) is negative

Reactants favoured reaction

- Keq < 1


- ♢H° > 0


- ♢G° > 0


- ♢S° < 0

Products favoured reactions

- Keq > 1


- ♢H° < 0


- ♢G° < 0


- ♢S° > 0

Rate determining step

Largest energy step. Trough to trough.

Catalyst

Lowers activation energy.


Does not change energy of start or endpoint.

Enzymes

Biological proteins, found in bodies and act as catalysts.

Exergonic

A release of energy. When spontaneous. G<0

Endergonic

When energy is absorbed. When non-spontaneous. G>0