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145 Cards in this Set

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Lewin's description of the change process as a break in the organization's equilibrium state is known as the ___________ metaphor.
calm waters
The lack of environmental stability and predictability requires that managers and organizations continually adapt (manage change actively to survive) is known as the ___________ metaphor.
white-water rapids
What are the three stages in the change process?
- ___________ the status quo
- ___________ to a new state
- ___________ to make the change permanent
unfreezing, changing, refreezing
Preparing the organization to accept that change is necessary, which involves breaking down the existing status quo is the objective of which stage in the change process?
Unfreezing the status quo
People begin to resolve their uncertainty and look for new ways to do things; people start to believe and act in was that support the new direction is the objective of which stage in the change process?
Changing to a new state
Help people and the organization internalize or institutionalize the changes - make sure the changes are used all the time and incorporated into everyday business is the objective of which stage in the change process?
Refreezing to make the change permanent
Any alterations in the people, structure, or technology of an organization is known as ___________.
organizational change
What are the three types of change?
- ___________- changing an organization's structural components or its structural design
- ___________- adopting new equipment, tools, or operating methods that displace old skills and require new ones
- ___________- changing attitudes, expectations, perceptions, and behaviors of the workforce
structure, technology, people
Replacing certain tasks done by people with machines is known as ___________.
automation
Persons who act as catalysts and assume the responsibility for managing the change process are known as ___________.
change agents
Techniques or programs to change people and the nature and quality of interpersonal work relationships are known as organizational ___________.
development
Work expectations that are hard to satisfy
role conflict
Having more work to accomplish than time permits
role overload
When role expectations are not clearly understood
role ambiguity
The adverse reaction people have to excessive pressure placed on them from extraordinary demands, constraints, or opportunities
stress
The ability to combine ideas in a unique way or to make an unusual association
creativity
Turning the outcomes of the creative process into useful products, services, or work methods
innovation
Individuals who actively and enthusiastically support new ideas, build support, overcome resistance, and ensure that innovations are implemented
idea champions
an obstacle that makes it difficult to achieve a desired goal or purpose
problem
making a choice from two or more alternatives
decision
Steps of the decision making process:
- Step 1: Identifying a ___________
- Step 2: Identifying decision ___________
- Step 3: Allocating ___________ to the criteria
- Step 4: Developing ___________
- Step 5: ___________ alternatives
- Step 6: Selecting an ___________
- Step 7: ___________ the alternative
- Step 8: Evaluating decision ___________
problem, criteria, weights, alternatives, analyzing, alternative, implementing, effectiveness
A problem becomes a problem when a ___________ becomes aware of it.
manager
Decision criteria are factors that are important (relevant) to resolving the problem, such as: ___________ that will be incurred (investments required), ___________ likely to be encountered (change of failure), and ___________ that are desired (growth of the firm).
costs, risks, outcomes
Decision criteria are not of equal ___________. Assigning a weight to each item places the items in the correct ___________ order of their importance in the decision-making process.
importance, priority
When you develop alternatives in the decision making process, alternatives are listed (without ___________) that can resolve the problem.
evaluation
When analyzing alternatives in the decision-making process, appraise each alternatives ___________ and ___________.
strengths, weaknesses
When selecting an alternative, the alternative with the ___________ total weight is chosen.
highest
When implementing the alternative, you convey the decision to and gain ___________ from those who will carry out the alternative.
commitment
When evaluating decision effectiveness, the soundness of the decision is judged by its ___________.
outcomes
___________ decision-making describes choices that are logical and consistent while maximizing value.
Rational
Decision making that's rational, but limited by an individual's ability to process information is known as ___________.
bounded rationality
Accepting solutions that are "good enough" is known as ___________.
satisficing
an explicit statement that limits what a manager or employee can or cannot do
rule
a general guideline for making a decision about a structured problem
policy
a series of interrelated steps that a manager can use to apply a policy in response to a structured problem
procedure
a situation in which a manager can make an accurate decision because the outcome of every alternative choice is known
certainty
a situation in which the manager is able to estimate the likelihood (probability) of outcomes that result form the choice of particular alternatives
risk
Using "rules of thumb" to simplify decision making
heuristics
Holding unrealistically positive views of oneself and one's performance is known as ___________ bias.
overconfidence
Choosing alternatives that offer immediate rewards and avoid immediate costs is known as ___________ bias.
immediate gratification
Fixating on initial information and ignoring subsequent information is known as the ___________ effect.
anchoring
Selecting, organizing and interpreting events based on the decision maker's biased perceptions is known as ___________ perception bias.
selective
Seeking out information that reaffirms past choices while discounting contradictory information is known as ___________ bias.
confirmation
Selecting and highlighting certain aspects of a situation while ignoring other aspects is known as ___________ bias.
framing
Losing decision-making objectivity by focusing on the most recent events is known as ___________ bias.
availability
Drawing analogies and seeing identical situations when none exist is known as ___________ bias.
representation
Creating unfounded meaning out of random events is known as ___________ bias.
randomness
Forgetting that current actions cannot influence past events and relate only to future consequences are known as ___________ errors.
sunk cost
Taking quick credit for successes and blaming outside factors for failures is known as ___________ bias.
self-serving
Mistakenly believing hat an event could have been predicted once the actual outcome is known (after-the-fact) is known as ___________ bias.
hindsight
a primary managerial activity that involves: defining the organization's goals, establishing an overall strategy for achieving those goals, and developing plans for organizational work activities
planning
desired outcomes for individuals, groups, or entire organizations; provide direction and evaluation performance criteria
goals (also objectives)
documents that outline how goals are to be accomplished; describe how resources are to be allocated and establish activity schedules
plans
___________ plans establish the organization's overall goals, seek to position the organization in terms of its environment, cover extended periods of time.
Strategic
___________ plans specify the details of how the overall goals are to be achieved, cover a short time period.
Operational
___________ plans have time frames extending beyond three years.
Long-term
___________ plans have time frames of one year or less.
Short-term
___________ plans are flexible plans that set out general guidelines and provide focus, yet allow discretion in implementation.
Directional
___________ plans are a one-time plan specifically designed to meet the need of a unique situation.
Single-use
___________ plans are ongoing plans that provide guidance for activities performed repeatedly.
Standing
Current plans affecting future commitments must be sufficiently long-term in order to meet those commitments. This is known as the ___________.
commitment concept
What managers do to develop the organizations strategies
strategic management
the plans for how the organization will do what it's in business to do, how it will compete successfully, and how it will attract and satisfy its customers in order to achieve its goals
strategies
How a company is going to make money is known as a ___________ model.
business
a statement of the purpose of an organization; the scope of its products and services
mission
an organizational strategy that determines what businesses a company is in or wants to be in, and what it wants to do with those businesses
corporate strategy
a corporate strategy that’s used when an organization wants to expand the number of markets served or products offered, through either its current business(es) or new businesses(es)
growth strategy
a corporate strategy in which an organization continues to do what it is currently doing
stability strategy
a corporate strategy designed to address declining performance
renewal strategy
an organizational strategy for how an organization will compete in its business(es)
competitive strategy
What strategy seeks to attain the lowest total overall costs relative to other industry competitors?
cost leadership strategy
What strategy attempts to create a unique and distinctive product or service for which customers will pay a premium?
Differentiation strategy
What strategy uses a cost or differentiation advantage to exploit a particular market segment as opposed to a larger market?
Focus strategy
The strategies used by an organization's various functional departments to support the competitive advantage are known as ________ strategies.
functional
what sets an organization apart; its distinctive edge
competitive advantage
What are the five competitive forces?
- Threat of new ________ – the ease or difficulty with which new competitors can enter an industry
- Threat of ________ – the extent to which switching costs and brand loyalty affect the likelihood of customers adopting substitute products and services
- ________ power of buyers – the degree to which buyers have the market strength to hold sway over and influence competitors in an industry
- Bargaining power of ________ – the relative number of buyers to suppliers and threats from substitutes and new entrants affect the buyer-supplier relationship
- Current ________ – intensity among rivals increases when industry growth rates slow, demand falls, and product prices descend.
entrants, substitutes, bargaining, suppliers, rivalry
the continuous line of authority that extends from upper levels of an organization to the lowest levels of the organization – clarifies who reports to whom
chain of command
the number of employees who can be effectively and efficiently supervised by a manager
span of control
arranging and structuring work to accomplish an organization’s goals
organizing
the formal arrangement of jobs within an organization
organizational structure
a process involving decisions about six key elements: work specialization, departmentalization, chain of command, span of control, centralization and decentralization, formalization
organizational design
31. What are the five types of departmentalization?
- _________ – grouping jobs by functions performed
- _________ – grouping jobs by product line
- _________ – grouping jobs on the basis of territory or geography
- _________ – grouping jobs on the basis of product or customer flow
- _________ – grouping jobs by type of customer and needs
functional, product, geographical, process, customer
the rights inherent in a managerial position to tell people what to do and to expect them to do it
authority
the obligation or expectation to perform
responsibility
the concept that a person should have one boss and should report only to that person
unity of command
the degree to which decision-making is concentrated at upper levels in the organization.
centralization
when an organization relegates decision making to managers who are closes to the action.
decentralization
the degree to which jobs within the organization are standardized and the extent to which employee behavior is guided by rules and procedures
formalization
Highly formalized jobs offer little _____ over what is to be done. Low formalization means fewer _______ on how employees do their work.
discretion, constraints
What are the characteristics of an organic organization?
Cross-_______ teams, cross-_______, free flow of _______, _______ spans of control, centralization or decentralization?, _______ formalization
functional, hierarchal, information, wide, decentralization, low
Name the four contingency variables.
- Overall _____ of the organization, _____ of the organization, _____ use employed by the organization, degree of _____ uncertainty
strategy, size, technology, environmental
a six-step process that encompasses strategic planning, implementation, and evaluation
strategic management process
Step 1 in the strategic management process focuses on identifying the organization's current _______ (a statement of the purpose of an organization; the scope of its products and services) ,_______ (the foundation for further planning; measurable performance targets) , and _______.
mission, goals, strategies
Step 2 of the strategic management process is doing an _______ analysis, the environmental scanning of specific and general environments. Focuses on identifying _______ and _______.
external, opportunities, threats
Step 3 of the strategic management process is doing an _______ analysis, assessing organizational resources, capabilities, and activities. _______ create value for the customer and strengthen the competitive position of the firm. _______ can place the firm at a competitive disadvantage. Analyzing financial and physical assets is fairly easy, but assessing _______ assets (employee skills, culture, corporate reputation, etc.) isn't as simple.
internal, strengths, weaknesses, intangible
Step 4 in the strategic management process is formulating _______.
1. Develop and evaluate strategic _______.
2. Select appropriate strategies for all levels in the organization that provide _______ advantage over competitors.
3. Match organizational _______ to environmental opportunities.
4. Correct _______ and guard against _______.
strategies, alternatives, relative, strengths, weaknesses, threats
Step 5 in the strategic management process is _______ strategies.
_______- effectively fitting organizational structure and activities to the environment. The _______ dictates the chosen strategy; effective strategy implementation requires an organizational structure matched to its requirements.
implementing, implementation, environment
Step 6 in the strategic management process is _______ results. How effective have strategies been? What adjustments, if any, are necessary?
Evaluating
What are the components of a SWOT analysis and which environment does each component relate to?
Strengths, Weaknesses - Internal Environment

Opportunities, Threats - External Environment
Organizational Development techniques that work for U.S. organizations may be inappropriate in other countries and cultures is known as _______.
Global Organizational Development
Changing consumer needs and wants, new governmental laws, changing technology, economic changes and the stock market are _______ forces for change.
external
New organizational strategy, change in composition of workforce, new equipment and changing employee attitudes are _______ forces for change.
internal
Change causes _______!
stress/fear
_______ is the opposite of paralysis by analysis.
Satisfice
With programmed decisions you (do/do not) have to give a lot of thought.
do not
_______ management carry out procedures (involved in day-to-day activities).
Middle
_______ management deal with rules.
Lower
_______ management create policies.
Upper
All decision have _______ (ex: make the wrong decision).
risk
With decision-making, apply _______, think about whether it's a _______/_______ decision, and consider the _______.
rationality, programmed/non-programmed, risks
Formal planning is _______, _______ down, and communicated down throughout the _______.
organized, written, organization
Goals (aka objectives) are the desired outcomes or the _______ result. _______ are how you're going to get there.
result, plans
_______ goals are what's on paper, while _______ goals are what gets done.
Stated, real
A business plan around 1 year is also known as an _______ plan.
operational
Strategic (long-term) plans are now about _______ years.
5
Operational plans are (very/not very) specific.
very
Organization's don't plan beyond 3 years because of the degree of _______.
environmental uncertainty
With environmental uncertainty:
A stable environments involves _______ plans and a dynamic environment involves specific but _______ plans.
specific, flexible
With the commitment concept, you have to be able to stick to a plan, commit _______ to see it through.
resources
A criticism of planning is that plans cannot be developed for _______ environments. They recognize that things re going to change and want to change with the _______.
dynamic, time
Planning in dynamic environments involves developing plans that are specific but flexible, open to _______.
change
Persistance in planning eventually pays off. Planning takes _______.
time
What you're best at are known as your _______ competencies.
core
_______ of control involves how many locations a manager should be responsible of.
Span
The downside of work specialization is _______, which can result in human diseconomies such as boredom, fatigue, stress, poor quality, absenteeism, and higher turnover.
overspecialization
You see a lot of work specialization in _______.
manufacturing
Accounting, HR, and purchasing are examples of _______ departmentalization.
functional
You go to a different person to get a loan than to open a checking account is an example of _______ departmentalization.
product
Sales and customer service are examples of _______ departmentalization.
geographic
Organizational Structure: You need to understand where in your organization you need to put _______ in order to facilitate goals & objectives set forth.
authority
Is there a right number for the span of control?
No, everyone can't manage the same number of employees.
Hands on managers have a _______ span of control, while managers that trust people have a _______ span of control.
smaller, wider
A wide span of control results in _______ managers and is lots _______.
less, cheaper
If you don't have the right number for your span of control because you're trying to cut costs, you'll lose what you're saving through _______.
inefficiencies
With centralization, there are lots of _______, it's not as _______, and is ok in _______ environmental uncertainty.
rules/regulations, flexible, low
The degree to which decision making is concentrated at upper levels in the organization is known as _______. This is common in organizations in which top managers make all the decisions and the lower-level employees simply carry out those orders.
centralization
With decentralization, there is _______ environmental uncertainty and they respond _______ when opportunities present themselves,
high, quickly
A part of decentralization (when an organization relegates decision making to managers who are closest to the action) where an organization increases the decision-making authority (power) of employees. This is known as _______.
employee empowerment
More formalization usually means less _______.
innovation
Mechanic vs. Organic Organizations:
Which is more available to move with the times? Which is more successful in environmental uncertainty?
organic, organic
Cost minimization is not going to be _______, the cheapest product isn't usually innovative.
innovative
Innovation is not highly _______/_______.
structured/formalized
If we're setting up an innovative company, we're going to have _______ formalization, (centralized or decentralized?), _______ spans of control.
low, decentralized, wide
_______ organizational structures tend to be most effective in stable and simple environments. The flexibility of _______ organizational structures is better suited for dynamic and complex environments.
mechanistic, organic
The greater the environmental uncertainty, the more an organization should be (centralized or decentralized)?
decentralized