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26 Cards in this Set

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Communication

the passage of information between one person or group to another person or group

Sender

the originator of a communication, who encodes and transmits a message; also known as the encoder

receiver

the recipient of a communication who decodes the message; also known as the decoder

encoding

the process of preparing a message for transmission by putting it into some form or code

channel

the vehicle through which a message flows from sender to receiver

decoding

the process of translating a message so that it can be understood

feedback

an acknowledgment that a message has been received and understood

noise

physical or psychological distractions that disrupt the effective flow of communication

source factors

characteristics of the sender that influence the effectiveness of a communication

channel factors

characteristics of the vehicle of transmission of a message that affect communication

jargon

special language developed in connection with certain jobs; also called technical language

audience factors

characteristics of the receiver that influence the effectiveness of a communication

nonverbal communication

message sent and received through means other than the spoken or written word

Pygmalion effect

when a sender nonverbally communicates expectations to a receiver influencing his/her behavior

downward communication

messages flowing downward in an organizational hierarchy, usually from superiors to subordinates

upward communication

messages flowing upward in an organizational hierarchy, usually taking the form of feedback

lateral communication

messages between two parties at the same level in an organizational hierarchy

filtering

the selective presentation of the content of a communication

exaggeration

the distortion of information by elaborating, overestimating, or minimizing parts of the message

communication networks

systematic lines of communication among various senders and receivers

centralized networks

communication networks in which the flow of communication is directed through specific members

decentralized networks

communication networks in which messages can originate at any point and need not be directed through specific group members

organigram

a diagram of an organization's hierarchy representing the formal lines of communication

grapevine

the informal communication network in an organization

sociogram

a diagram of the informal lines of communication among organizational members

rumors

information that is presented as fact, but which may actually be true or false