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83 Cards in this Set

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Define crude oil.

a fossil fuel which is a mixture of hundreds ofdifferent compounds.

How is crude oil formed?

Crude oil is found trapped in sedimentary rocks.

1. Millions of years ago, microscopic animals and plants fell to the bottom of the sea. Their remains then covered by mud.

2. More sediment buried the mud sediment, it started to change into rock, as temperature and pressure increased. The remains were ‘cooked’ by this process, and changed into crude oil.

3. Oil will rise as a result of pressure from below, escaping altogether if the rocks are permeable.

Environmental considerations of burning fossil fuels

· One of the products of burning fossil fuels is carbon dioxide which contributes significantly to global warming.

· Air pollution leading to respiratory diseases

· Water and land pollution (acid rain, oil spills)

What makes a good fuel?

A fuel which releases a lot of heat energy per gram, is non-polluting and is easy to transport.

Define fossil fuel.

fuel formed from the remains of tiny dead sea creatures and plants over millions of years.

Crude oil, coal, natural gas.

What is natural gas mainly made of?


Define fractional distillation.

the separation of a liquid mixture into fractions differing in boiling point (and hence chemical composition) by means of distillation, typically using a fractionating column.

What fractions does fractional distillation produce?

refinery gas, gasoline, naphtha, kerosone, diesel, fuel oil

residues: lubricating oils and bitumen

Define petroleum.

a liquid mixture of hydrocarbons which is present in suitable rock strata and can be extracted and refined to produce fuels including petrol, paraffin, and diesel oil; oil.

What is nylon used for?

fabric, cookware and machine parts

What is kerosene used for?

fuel for jet aircrafts

What is naphtha used for?

making chemicals, especially plastics

What is diesel oil used for?

fuel for lorries and tractors

What is gasoline used for?

fuel for cars

What is fuel oil (heavy gas oil) used for?

fuel for power stations, ships and home heating

Define cracking.

the process of breaking down certain hydrocarbons into simpler ones of lower boiling points by means of excess heat, distillation under pressure, etc., in order to give a greater yield of low- boiling products than could be obtained by simple distillation.

Complete combustion

methane+oxygen=carbon dioxide+water

CH4 + O2 = CO2 + H2O

Incomplete combustion

methane+oxygen=carbon dioxide+water+carbon

CH4 + O2 = CO2 + H2O + C

Define hydrocarbon.

acompound of hydrogen and carbon, such as any of those which are the chiefcomponents of petroleum and natural gas.

Define homologous series.

a series of compounds with the same general formula.

What are alkanes?

any of the series of saturated hydrocarbons includingmethane, ethane, propane, and higher members.

Describe bonding in alkanes

Covalent bonds.

Chemical properties of alkanes.

- they do not react with acids or alkalines

-they burn under special conditions with a clear blue flame when plenty of oxygen is present. Complete combustion.

What are alkenes?

any of the series of unsaturated hydrocarbonscontaining a double bond, including ethylene and propene.

What is the molecular formula for methane, ethene and propene.




How to test for saturated fats?

when shaken with bromine water, the water becomes colourless if it is with an unsaturated oil,but it stays orange-brown when shaken with a saturated fat.

Why are alkenes so usefulin comparison to alkanes?

Alkenes,with a catalyst, can make several kinds of polymers (plastics) through additionreaction. Also the double bond makes it more reactive as carbon likes to makefour bonds. The more reactive it is the more you can do with it.

Name the prefixes up until nine










What are isomers?

each of two ormore compounds with the same formula but a different arrangement of atoms inthe molecule and different properties.

What are structural isomers?

compounds which have the same molecular formula but have different structural formulae.

Define hydrogenation

the addition of hydrogen to an unsaturated compound

Equation for hydrogenation

Hydrogen+alkene= alkane

catalyst is often used.

Define an alcohol.

a substancecontaining an -OH group attached to a hydrocarbon group.

Examples of an alcohol.

Methanol, ethanol, butanol, propanol, heptanol, hexanol etc.

Define an endothermic reaction.

accompanied byor requiring the absorption of heat.

-Δ = energyin

Define an exothermic reaction.

accompanied by the release of heat.

+Δ = energy out

How to make an alcohol.

Alkene+steam= alcohol


What conditions are needed for ethene to react with steam to produce ethanol?

High temperature and high pressure.

Define fermentation.

the chemical breakdown of asubstance by bacteria, yeasts, or other micro-organisms, typically involvingeffervescence and the giving off of heat.

Ethanol to ethanoic acid

- oxidation in the air
enzymes from bacteria which is naturally present in the air speed up the conversion of ethanol to ethanoic acid. Requires oxygen.

- acified potassium managanate

Name a naturally occurring alcohol.


Define a carboxylic acid.

a weak organic acids with –COOH as the functionalgroup. Their names all end in –oic acid.

Properties of carboxylic acids.

-they are only partially ionised in water.

-the hydrogen of the -COOH group is the only one that is responsible for the acidity of carboxylic acids.

What type of linkage is formed when a carboxylic acids reacts with an alcohol?

an ester linkage

Define functional group.

a group of atoms responsible for the characteristic reactions of a particular compound.

Write the formula of the functional groups of carboxylic acids, alcohols and amines

carboxylic acids, -COOH

alcohols, -OH

amines, NH2

What is the general structure of a di-carboxylic acid?



HO - C - C - OH



Define monomer.

a molecule that can be bonded to other identicalmolecules to form a polymer.

Define polymerization.

a process of reactingmonomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.

Define addition polymerization.

the formation of polymers from monomers where no other substance than the polymer is formed.

Define a plastic. Examples.

a synthetic material made from a wide range of organic polymers such as polyethylene, PVC, nylon, etc., that can be moulded into shape while soft, and then set into a rigid or slightly elastic form.

What type of molecules are plastics and proteins?


Define macromolecule.

a molecule containing a very large number of atoms, such as a protein, nucleic acid, or synthetic polymer.

Advantages and disadvantages of polymerizationto produce plastics


· They can be easily moulded and have excellent finishing.

· Durability

· Chemical resistance.Plasticis strong, good and cheap to produce.

· Produces toxic fumes when it is burnt· It isa recycle process, but it is very costly.· Non-renewableresourceDoes not biodegrade rkA6>?

Explain the chemical reaction for building a polymer from a set ofmonomers.

in thisprocess, two monomers are covalently bonded by the removal of awater molecule. Each organic monomer has a hydroxyl group (-OH) onone side and a hydrogen (H) on the other. When two monomers lineup side by side, they will have these two functional groups facing oneanother (H & OH). The H and the OH will break off of their respectivemonomers and bond forming a water molecule.

Describe the polymerization of ethene to produce poly(ethen).

What type of reaction occurs when ethene molecules are polymerised?

addition polymerization

What feature of ethene is responsible for its ability to polymerise?

its double bond which opens up to create new bonds with other monomers.

Uses of polypropene.

packaging, labelling, textiles and so on.

What is PET used for?

Plastic bottles, containers and pots

Define condensation polymerization.

polymerization in which a single molecule iseliminated —distinguished from additionpolymerization

Examples of condensation polymers.

Polyesters, polyamides, proteins and polysaccharides such ascellulose, are all examples of condensation polymers.

Define ester.

a compound produced by the reaction between an acid and an alcoholwith the elimination of a molecule of water

How to make an ester.

Carboxylic acid+ alcohol= ester +water

Define an ester linkage.

The -COO group found in esters, fats and oils

Define polyester.

A polymer with -COO- linkages

Example of a polyester.


What kind of monomers are needed to form polyesters?

carboxylic acids and alcohols

Define hydrolysis.

the breakdown of a compound by reaction with water. Acids or alkalis speed up hydrolysis.

How to make a soap (equation).

Fat+ sodium hydroxide= soap+ glycerol

Define amine.

a compound with an -NH2 functional group

Reaction of an amine with a carboxylic acid.

amine+ carboxylic acid= amide + water

What kind of monomers are needed to form a polyamine?

Di-amines and di-carboxylic acids

What is the general structure of the di-amine monomers that made a polyamide?



N - C - N



Explain why carboxylic acids and di-amines are able to join together to form a long chain polyamide polymer.

when condensation polymerization occurs when di-amines and di-carboxylic acisa are present, more OH and H atoms can be eliminated to produce water molecules

Define polyamide.

polymers where the repeating units are held together by amide links, -CONH- links.

Example of a polyamide.


Define carbohydrate.

the general name for complex sugars.

How can complex carbohydrates be made into simple sugars? What is this an example of?

complex carbohydrates can be hydrolysed to simple sugars by concentrated hydrochloric acid.

In our bodies starch is hydrolysed to glucose using enzymes.

Hydrolysis breaking down complex carbohydrates using simplified formula.

starch+ water=(using hydrochloric acid and heat) glucose

What functional groups react to join glucose monomers together to form starch?


What is the natural polymer starch made from?

it is made from the monomer glucose

How does a breathalysers work?

Oxidation with acified potassium dichromate

Glass tube containingpotassium dichromate- sulphuric acid coated on silica gel beads. As the personblows the plastic bag fills with air.

Orange- theoriginal colour of potassium dichromate.

Green- theethanol in the persons breath changes to green