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31 Cards in this Set

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World IMR stats

1. World average is 44 per 1000


2. Angola is 178 (highest)


3. Sweden is 2 (lowest)

World Life Expectancy stats

1. Under 45 in sub-Saharan Africa


2. Over 80 in MEDCs (Australia, Japan, Canada)

World Calorie Intake stats

1. 1500 in Afghanistan and Eritrea (LEDCs)


2. 3000 and 2500 in China and India respectively (NICs)


3. 3700 in USA, Portugal, Greece (MEDCs)


India & HYV

Total population 1.3 billion by 2020.


Food production increase by 50% to meet demand.




55% of crops are HYV


Feeds twice as many people as Africa on just 13% of land area

World hygiene stats

WHO African region


- Use of toilets 30% in 1990 to only 34% to 2008




Lowest increase in the world

Environmental cost of Green Revolution

Mismanagement of irrigation causes salination


- 20% Pakistan land affected


- 25% Central Asia



Biofuel production in the US

30% of corn crop diverted to biofuel production

World agricultural funding stats

<5% government budget in African countries




20% of foreign aid for LEDC agriculture in 1986


<3% of foreign aid by 2006

Ethiopia general stats

- 6.2 million need food aid


- 82.6 infant mortality rate


- 40% of children underweight


- 2,1000 average calorie intake (daily requirement)

Food deficiency due to climate in Ethiopia

- Kirmet wet season


- 90% of rain falls


- 2008 & 2009 consecutive failure


- Only 3% of cultivated land under irrigation (40% in Asia)


- Food reserves used up

Food deficiency due to land degradation in Ethiopia

- 28% land degraded or severely degraded (FAO)


- 40 sheep grazing 0.1 hectare land


- Up to 100 tonnes upland topsoil eroded each year




- Average only 4kg fertilizer per African farmer


- 110kg in Asia per year

Food deficiency due to population growth

- Population doubled in 25 years (Malthusian increase)


- 100% increase maize price (WFP)


- 40% increase wheat price in 2008

Economic importance of agriculture in Ethiopia

- Primary Industrial Sector


- 50% of GDP


- 80% employment


- 85% of exports


- 35% of foreign earnings from coffee exports


- Down from 65% a decade ago (stumped coffee price)

Implications of Trading Blocs / Farm subsidies

- Common Agricultural Policy by EU


- Guarantees food prices for unlimited production


- Surplus from 'Food mountains' undercut farmers outside EU


- Farmers lose $100 billion per year

Implications of multilateral / bilateral agreements

Multi (failure)


- 1975 Lome Trade Convention


- ACP (African, Caribbean & Pacific nations) preferential access to EU


- Only 7% of EU banana imports from Caribbean




Bi (success)


- Sainsbury bananas all fair traded since 2007


- 100 million from St. Lucia

Fair Trade in Ghana

Blue Skies Products


- Buy pineapples from smallholders


- Direct export to EU


- Blue Skies Organic Collective Association (BSOC)


- 80 pineapple farmers


- Harvest collection free of charge


- Boreholes built in villages from raised income

World rice cultivation EER stats

- 1.60 in California (Vehicle fuel and fertilizer highest energy input)


- 2.50 in Japan (Fertilizer highest input, half of Canada)


- 7.10 in Borneo (Labour highest energy input)

World income loss for diseases of affluence

- $3 billion in Brazil


- $9 billion in India


- $18 billion in China

Causes of Malaria

- Vector : Anopheles mosquito


- 20 degrees Celsius to complete life cycle


- Water bodies




- No known vaccine for malaria


- $5 Mosquito nets too expensive


- Banning of DDT insecticide (carcinogenic & non-biodegradable)

Impact of Malaria on sub-Saharan Africa

- Kills 2.4 million sub-Saharan Africans annually


- Reduce family incomes by 25%


- $200 million in lost productivity (2005 - 2010)


- Costs 40% of national health expenditure

Solutions to Malaria

- Cheap $5 mosquito nets


- 50% reduction in infection rates


- 20% reduction in child mortality

Impact of HIV / AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa at a national level

- 1.4 million deceased in 2008




- Direct medical cost US$30 per person annually


- Public health spending only US$10




- Agricultural workforce in Namibia, Botswana and Zimbabwe will be 16% larger without HIV / AIDS


- 40% Zambian midwives are HIV-positive (health worker)


-

Impact of HIV / AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa at a local level

- On average 33% household income used for medical costs


- 7 times monthly income for a funeral

Antiretroviral treatment in sub-Saharan Africa

- 90% Namibians have access


- Only 10% of infected receive treatment




- 200,000 infections prevented in children since 2001


- >10% death toll since 2005


- 2.9 million lives saved

Obesity in Mexico

- 2nd fattest nation in the world


- 71% Women, 66% Men obese (2008)


- 10% overall (1989)


- 25% of children overweight

Causes for obesity in Mexico

- Common among population with US$2 mean daily income per capita


- 75% schools serve soft drinks instead of water because fast food is cheaper


- 205 McDonald restaurants (Ranked 16th)


- Consumption increased 60% since 2005




- Only 32% children exercise daily

Impacts of obesity in Mexico

- 44% diabetes, 23% hear disease cases attributable to obesity


- 10 million diabetic Mexicans


- 70,000 annual deaths

Diabetes in India

- Highest prevalence rate in the world (9%)


- Expected to increase 150% from 2000 to 2030

Causes of diabetes in India

Patient compliance


- 30% fail to take medications as prescribed


- 37% fail to change diet




Delay in diagnosis


- 7 year time lag between education levels


- 4 year time lag between income levels

Impact of diabetes in India

- Direct medical costs up to 25% household income

Solutions of diabetes and their difficulties in India

Government participation


- diabetesindia.com


- No national programme for diabetes


- Only 1.2% government budget on diabetes




Education / awareness


- 6th largest country in the world


- 18 major languages + 200 dialect




Religious / Cultural differences


- Meat is a sign of wealth and status