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34 Cards in this Set

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Water that is found inside cells
intracellular water
Water that is found outside the cells.
extracellular water
Extracellular water that is found in blood.
intravascular water
Extracellular water that is found in the fluid around cells.
interstitial water
Substances that break into ions in water and attract water.
electrolytes
The membrane (cell) that water crosses when the electrolyte concentration on one side is greater than on the other side.
semipermeable membrane
The buildup of fluid in interstitial spaces.
edema
The amount of water that comes into and is generated by out bodies equal to the amount of water that leaves our bodies.
water balance
The kind of loss of water that is removed from the body in the urine because we comprehend through our senses the fact that urination has taken place.
sensible water
Smaller quantities of water that are lost by feces, skin, and breath because we are less aware of it.
insensible water loss
Increase urine production.
diuretics
Results in the body obtaining water from interstitial and intracellular compartments because there is not enough fluid in the intravascular compartment to form urine.
dehydration
An excess of water with symptoms that include headache blurred vision, and seizures
water intoxication
Inorganic elements that cannot be broken down further using ordinary chemical procedures that the body uses to promote chemical reactions and to form body structures.
minerals
Required by the diet in quantities of more than 100mg/day(6)
major minerals (potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and sulfur)
Minerals required in the diet in quantities of less than 100mg/day and the food content of them is based on the soil in which it is grown and in the loss or addition of minerals during processing.(9)
trace minerals (iron, zinc, copper, selenium, iodine, fluoride, chromium, molybdenum, and manganese)
The degree to which a nutrient is absorbed into, and is therefore available to, the body.
bioavailability
The abnormal, compulsive craving for and eating of nonfood substances.
pica
High blood pressure that may result from excess intakes of sodium and is greater than 90mm diastolic (between) and 140mm mercury systolic (pumping)
hypertension
The bone cells that support bone formation.
osteoblasts
the bone cells that favor breakdown of the bone network
osteoclasts
A condition that is a result of deficient intake and/or absorption of calcium.
osteoporosis
The iron in the hemoglobin and myoglobin of animal flesh. Good sources are meat, fish, and poultry.
heme iron
Iron that is found in vegetables, legumes, and grains, as well as in meat, fish, and poultry.
nonheme iron
The protein that iron is bound to after it is absorbed into the bloodstream.
transferrin
The intestinal cell where temporary storage of iron takes place when the body does not require it.
ferritin
The iron containing part of the red blood cell that carries oxygen to the cells and some carbon dioxide away from the cells.
hemoglobin
The iron containing protein that controls the rate of diffusion of oxygen from red blood cells into the muscle cells.
Myoglobin
Most of absorbed iron will be used to make? (2)
hemoglobin and myoglobin
A deficiency of iron which is characterized by a decrease in the color, number, and size of red blood cells and has symptoms such as pale skin and mucous membranes, fatigue, poor temperature regulation, difficult breathing, and spoon-shaped fingernails.
microcytic anemia
Iodine deficiency in an adult that results in an enlarged thyroid gland.
goiter
Substances in certain raw vegetables (turnips, rutabagas, cabbage, and cassava) that interfere with the formation of thyroid hormones.
goitrogens
Infants born to women who consume too little iodine will have stunted growth and irreversible mental retardation.
cretinism
The hard substance between cells in bones and teeth and is held in place by collagen.
hydroxyapatite