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43 Cards in this Set

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Vitamins
Organic, essential nutrients required in small amounts by the body for health. They regulate body processes that support growth and maintain life.
Bioavailability
The rate at and the extent to which a nutrient is absorbed
Precursors
Substances that precede others. With regard to vitamins, compounds that can be converted into active vitamins. Also known as provitamins.
Water-soluble vitamins
B vitamins: Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, vitamin b6, folate, vitamin b12; vitamin C
Fat soluble vitamins
Vitamin A, D, E, K
Water-soluble vitamins: B vitamins and vitamin C
Vitamins absorbed directly into the blood
Fat soluble vitamins: vitamin A, D, E, K
vitamins absorbed first into the lymph, and then the blood
Fat soluble vitamins: vitamin A, D, E, K
Vitamins which require transport proteins
Fat soluble vitamins: vitamin A, D, E, K
Vitamins that are stored in the cells associated with fat
Fat soluble vitamins: vitamin A, D, E, K
Vitamins that are less readily excreted; tend to remain in fat storage sites
Fat soluble vitamins: vitamin A, D, E, K
Vitamins likely to reach toxic levels when consumed from supplements
Fat soluble vitamins: vitamin A, D, E, K
Vitamins needed in periodic doses, perhaps weeks or even months
Water-soluble vitamins: B vitamins and vitamin C
Vitamins which travel freely
Water-soluble vitamins: B vitamins and vitamin C
Vitamins that circulate freely in water-filled parts of the body
Water-soluble vitamins: B vitamins and vitamin C
vitamins needed in frequent doses perhaps 1 to 3 days
Water-soluble vitamins: B vitamins and vitamin C
Kidneys detect and remove these excess vitamins in urine
Water-soluble vitamins: B vitamins and vitamin C
Possible to reach toxic levels of these vitamins when consumed from supplements
B vitamins
Serve as coenzymes in energy metabolism
Thiamin
Functions as a coenzyme in energy metabolism. Food sources include pork, whole grains, and enriched grain products. Deficiencies include Beriberi and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.
Riboflavin
Functions as a coenzyme in energy metabolism. Food sources include milk, milk products, whole grains, and enriched grain products. Deficiency includes Ariboflavinosis. Light sensitive, why milk containers cardboard or opaque plastic.
Niacin
Precursor of tryptophan (an essential amino acid). Functions as a coenzyme in energy metabolism. Food sources include foods containing high quality protein, whole grain and enriched grain products. Corn is a poor food source of this vitamin and tryptophan. Deficiency include Pellagra 4 Ds- diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia, and death.
Niacin flush
A temporary burning, tingling, and itching sensation that occurs when a person takes a large dose of nicotinic acid. Often accompanied by a headache and red in the face, arms, and chest.
Physiological effect
When a normal dose of a nutrient (levels commonly found in foods) provides a normal blood concentration, the nutrient is having this effect
Pharmacological effect
When a large dose (levels commonly available only from supplements) overwhelms the body and raises blood concentrations to abnormally high levels, the nutrient is acting like a drug and having this effect
Biotin
Functions as a coenzyme, also participates in gluconeogenesis, fatty acid synthesis, and the breakdown of certain fatty acids and amino acids. Food sources are widespread including egg yolks, liver, soy beans, fish, whole grains. It is also produced by the GI tract. Avidin in raw egg white can bind with this vitamin in egg yolk.
Pantothenic acid
Functions as part of coenzyme A from acetyl CoA in energy metabolism. Food sources are widespread including chicken, beef, potatoes, oats, whole grains.
Vitamin B6
Aka Pyridoxine, Pyridoxal, Pyridoxamine. Functions as a coenzyme and helps make red blood cells. Food sources include all foods except milk. Deficiency includes microcytic anemia, depression. Antagonist include alcohol and tuberculosis medication. Toxicity produces severe and irreversible nerve damage.
Folate
Aka Floic acid, folacin, pteroylglutamate (PGA). Functions as coenzyme in new cell formation. Needs much higher in pregnancy, GI tract cells renew every 3 days! Food sources include leafy green veggies foliage, legumes. Deficiency macrocytic anemia. FDA has fortified grains with this vitamin to prevent Neural tube defects/heart disease.
400 ųg/day
RDA for folate
Vitamin B-12
Functions as a coenzyme and maintains nerve cells. Deficiency includes pernicious anemia, macrocytic anemia, same as in folate. Food sources include meat, eggs, and dairy. Susceptible to microwave. Vegans need to obtain this vitamin through supplements.
Atrophic gastritis
Chronic inflammation of the stomach accompanied by a diminished size and functioning of the mucous membrane and glands. This condition is also characterized by inadequate hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor, two substances needed for b12 absorption.
Hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor
Two substances needed for b12 absorption
B-12 deficiency
Reflects inadequate absorption, not for intake. Typically occurs for one of two reasons. A lack of hydrochloric acid or a lack of intrinsic factor. Is common among the elderly. Many older adults develop atrophic gastritis which damages the cells of the stomach.
Vitamin C
Aka ascorbic acid. Functions has collagen synthesis, antioxidant, and increases iron absorption. Food sources include citrus fruits, other fruits and veggies, potatoes contribute significantly to the US diet. Deficiency include scurvy. RTA is higher for smokers. Toxicity symptoms include diarrhea, interference with medical tests.
Bleeding gums
Early sign of scurvy. Vitamin C deficiency symptoms
75mg/day for women; 90mg/day for men
RDA for vitamin C in men and women
2000mg/day
UL for vitamin C
Cofactor
A small, inorganic or organic substance that facilitates the action of an enzyme
Antioxidant
In the body, substances that sufficiently decrease the adverse effects of free radicals on normal physiological functions.
Free radical
An unstable molecule with one or more unpaired electrons
Oxidative stress
A condition in which the production of oxidants and free radicals exceeds the body's ability to handle them and prevent damage
Collagen
The structural protein from which connective tissues such as scars, tendons, ligaments and the foundations of bones and teeth are made
Histamine
Substance produced by cells of the immune system as part of a local reaction to an antigen