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83 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Threeprocessing stages of MEMORY

•Encoding: step one, acquisitioin; step two, consolidation



Most imp anatomical structures involved in memory

•Anatomicallyspeaking: many regions involved but key is the hippocampus which isinterconnected with many structures particularly wide regions of the cortex andthe amygdala

Memory Deficits

•Amnesia:anterograde—loss of memory for events that occur after a lesion•Retrograde:loss of memory for events that occur before a lesion. Retrograde amnesia mayalso be temporally limited

Long Term Memory

•Declarativememory (explicit memory): memory for events and facts that we have consciousaccess to and can be verbally reported. Further broken into episodic andsemantic memory

•Episodic:Memories of personal experience, self as agent or recipient, begins age 13months (I learned something different that my child proved wrong…)

Non-declarative memory

implicit memory, cannot be declared, i.e. priming, habituation, sensitization, procedural memory, learning a motor or cognitive skill and not dependent on the medial temporal lobe



involves the basal ganglia (key), cerebellum, amygdala, and neocortex


Episodic & Semantic memory

•Episodic:Memories of personal experience, self as agent or recipient, begins age 13months (I learned something different that my child proved wrong…)

•Semantic: objective knowledge that is factual innature; retained but context of learning lost (18 months)

•Declarativememory (explicit memory) is

memory for events and facts that we have consciousaccess to and can be verbally reported. Further broken into episodic andsemantic memory


Medial Temporal Lobe system

Hippocampusdeteriorates rapidly in those with Alzheimer's Disease

Amygdalakey for emotional memory

Transientglobal amnesia: transient ischemia can cause sudden transient anterogradeamnesia and retrograde amnesia spanning weeks to years and may continually ask“Why am I here?”

Working memory

Workingmemory a combination of ability to retain information over the short term(maintenance) and perform mental operations of stored material (manipulation)

Badddeley and Hitch propose the phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad, andcentral executive

Short-term memory

•Sensorymemory, echoic memory (for hearing)(high capacity, short time), and iconicmemory (for vision)(300-300 ms)

•Short-termmemory: seconds to minutes•Modalmodel:1. sensory memory, 2. attentional resources move to short term storage,3.if rehearsed goes to long term memory

•Ateach stage information may be lost by decay (degrades over time) orinterference (new information takes its place)

•Conflictas to how much overlap between short and long term memory systems; doubledissociation is questionable

Brain surgery and memory loss

•Howmuch of the medial temporal lobe was lost related to the degree of amnesia.Loss of bilat. hippocampus resulted in severe amnesia•Famouscase of H.M. who retained memory of everything up until 2 years prior tosurgery. He retained normal short-term and working memory and procedural memorybut could not acquire new long term memories!•Highlightedthat memory is separate from perception and intellect•Canstill learn new motor, procedural and perceptual skills (but can’t rememberhow)

Encoding and the hippocampus

•Hippoactive when info encoded thus damage leads to difficulty encoding

•Hippoalso involved in retrieval, parahippocampal cortex stores contextual info whileperirhinal cortex stores specific items

Relational memory

Episodic information that leads to recollective experiences is relational memory

•During retrieval same brain regions activated during perception of pictures re-activated, same for sounds

•L frontal cortex involved in encoding; R frontal cortex involved in retrieval

•Semantic coding and retrieval both on the L side (Broca’s area)

Memory Consolidation

•Consolidationstabilizes memory over time•ECTproduces retrograde amnesia close to the time of the treatment•Canalso occur with head trauma•Itemsthat are lost appear to have not undergone the slower permanent consolidationprocess.•Standard Consolidation Theory:memories consolidated “through some sort of interaction between the medialtemporal lobe and the neocortex, the bound information is slowly transferredand replaced by a permanent memory trace in the neocortex.” (p. 414)•Ormultiple trace theoryposits that with each retrieval a hippocampal “trace” is left solidifyingmemory…•Memoriesstored as distributed representationsthroughout the neocortex

Damageto regions of the temporal lobe outside the hippocampus...

can produce dense retrograde amnesia though new memories can be formed

Memory Consolidation

•Consolidationstabilizes memory over time

•ECT (electroconvulsive therapy) produces retrograde amnesia close to the time of the treatment (Canalso occur with head trauma)

•Itemsthat are lost appear to have not undergone the slower permanent consolidationprocess.

Memory Consolidation: Standard Consolidation Theory

...memories consolidated “through some sort of interaction between the medial temporal lobe and the neocortex, the bound information is slowly transferred and replaced by a permanent memory trace in the neocortex.” (p. 414)

•Or multiple trace theory posits that with each retrieval a hippocampal “trace” is left solidifying memory…

•Memories are stored as distributed representations throughout the neocortex

Stress and Memory

•Insmall quantities cortisol aids learning

•Chronicstress detrimental to cognition and memory

•Asingle dose of hydrocortisone had a negative effect on verbal episodic memory

•Elderlywith chronic stress have 14% volume decrease

Sleep and Memory

•Sleepcrucial to memory consolidation

•Place cells: Neurons appearto be “replaying” the learned tasks during sleep

Baddeley and Working Memory!!

•Pioneeredhis Multicomponent approach to working memory (M-WM)

•Inspiredby Stephen Toulmin “theories were like maps, ways of organizing our existingknowledge of the world” (Baddeley, 2012,p.3)

Short Term Memory

•Shortterm memory: refers to simple storage of information

•Contrastedwith working memory: implies a combination of storage and manipulation; theseterms still are used interchangeably

•Exploredphonologic similarity: bad for STM, but good for LTM

•Concludedtwo storage systems, STM phonological (sound), LTM semantically based

Short Term Memory

Phonological coding good for rapid, attentionally undemanding verbal material, effective for serial order

Semantic coding rapid for meaningful sequences such as sentences but harder to use for unrelated words

•Immediate recall involves both STM and LTM components with either phonologic or semantic coding

Evolution of M-WM: Initial Assumptions

•#1:Models assumed holding in STM guaranteed transfer to LTM

•#2:Believed that STM essential for LTM—but wrong

•#3:STMbelieved part of WM, thus poor STM, poor cognition—again not true

•Thisled to first model

Assumptions of the M-WM Model

•#1:Limited capacity system allowing for temporary storage and manipulation neededfor a wide range of cognitive activities•#2:Split into a executive component and at least two separate storage systems, oneconcerning speech and the other is visuospatial•Phonologicloop: stored by vocal or subvocal rehearsal; people can retain as many words asthey can articulate in 2 seconds•Articulatorysuppression: “spoken material gains obligatory access to the phonologicalstore—written material must be subvocalized” (p. 8)•STMinterrupted by nonsense words/syllables and fluctuating tones•WMkey to vocabulary acquisition and linked to reading skills

Visuospatial Sketchpad

•LimitedSTM capacity

•Visuo-spatiallycoded sentences disrupted by pursuit tracking

•Ledto belief that system was spatial rather than visual, but alas some imagerytasks are visual, not spatial…

•Kinestheticor movement based system elements of STM poorly understood at this time

The Central Executive (CE)

•Usesa virtual homunculus until all the various functions can ultimately be dividedfurther. 4 primary functions of the CE:•1.Needs to be able to focus attention•2.Capacity to divide attention between 2 important stimulus streams•3.Must be able to switch between tasks•4.Must have the capacity to interface with LTM•Memoryspan for unrelated words 5; sentences 15 words reflecting an interactionbetween phonologic and semantic systems

Episodic Buffer

•“Actsas a buffer store, not only between the components of WM, but also linking WMto perception and LTM” (p. 15)

•Allowsdifferent sources to be bound creatively •Dependsheavily on the CE

•Capacitylimited to 4 objects, though little difference between bound (color/shape) andunbound items

Linking LTM and WM

•“Incominginformation is processed by systems that themselves ar influenced by LTM. I seeWM as a complex interactive system that is able to provide an interface betweencognition and action, an interface that is capable of handling information in arange of modalities and stages of processing.” (p. 18)

•Whatdoes WM not do?: “My own conclusion after surveying the experimentalliterature and its implications for clinical and social psychology (Baddeley,2007) is that we have evolved an overall cognitive system that attempts tominimize the demands made on WM while allowing it to intervene wherenecessary.” (p. 24)


•Emotionsslow to emerge because it is difficult to study systematically

•Emotionconsidered subjective and individual

•Nowrecognized that it is involved in much of cognitive processing!

•Influencesattention and decision making, bias behavior and actions

What is an emotion?

•Emotions:Action programs largely triggered by external stimuli (perceived or recalled).Examples include disgust, fear, anger, sadness, exploration and play, care ofprogeny, and attachment to mates. (Damasio, 2013)

•Mostagree involves a physiological response, a behavioral response, and a feeling…

Neural systems involved in emotion

•Sensorysystems may trigger episodic memory, physiologic component activates the ANS(SNS/PSNS) which then extends to all organ systems, hypothalamus, pituitary,hormones secretion, reticular activating system…•Limbicsystem: orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala and long time focus of the neural basis of emotion

•Complex inter connected network including the thalamus, the somatosensory insular cortex, higher order sensory cotices, the amygdala, the insular cortex (insula), MPFC (which includes the orbitofrontal cortex, ventral striatum, and the ACC)

•Different systems process different emotions, not just one circuit. Once again networked systems are the reality

MPFC (medial prefrontal cortex)

related to emotion...which includes the orbitofrontal cortex, ventral striatum, and the ACC

Categorizing emotions

•Basicemotions: comprise a closed set of emotions with unique characteristics,evolved and reflected through facial expressions•Complexemotions: combinations of basic emotions, socially or culturally learned thatcan be identified as long-lasting feelings•Dimensionsof emotion: describes emotions that are fundamentally the same but that differalong one or more dimensions such as valence or arousal

Basic emotions

•innateand similar in all humans

•Researchinto facial expressions opens a window into basic emotions

•Researchdropped until the 1960’s when Ekman found facial expressions do not vary muchfrom culture to culture

•Anger,fear, disgust, sadness, surprise, happiness, pride and shame: all innate,universal, and short-lived

Complex Emotions

•Love,jealousy, are examples of complex emotions, involves complex goal directedemotions

•Emotionalreactions characterized by two factors: valence and arousal, e.g.. happypositive valence, angry negative valence; arousal high to low

Positivevalence associated with approach, negative with withdrawal

Theories of emotion generation pt 1

James-LangeTheory: perception of somatovisceral feedback from bodily responses to emotionprovoking stimulus. Bear—run—feel fear

Cannon-Bard:Bear—thalamus—cortex/fear and hypothalamus/emotional reaction/Fight or Flight

Appraisaltheory: emotional processing an interpretive act

Theories of emotion generation pt 2

Singer-Schachtertheory: adrenaline study angry or happy confederate. Those unaware they hadbeen injected with adrenaline attributed feelings to the environment.•Constructivisttheories: emotion emerges from cognition molded by culture

Evolutionarypsychology: emotions involve coordinated cognitive programs that work together

Theories of emotion generation pt 3

Ledoux’shigh road and low road: emotional response system separate from consciousfeelings of emotion

Conclusion:Emotions with 3 components, physiological response, behavioral response, andsubjective feelings. Underlying mechanisms and timing disputed

James-Lange Theory:

perception of somatovisceral feedback from bodily responses to emotion provoking stimulus. Bear—run—feel fear

Cannon-Bard theory:

Bear—thalamus—cortex/fear and hypothalamus/emotional reaction/Fight or Flight

Appraisal theory:

emotional processing an interpretive act

Singer-Schachter theory:

adrenaline study angry or happy confederate. Those unaware they had been injected with adrenaline attributed feelings to the environment.

Constructivist theories:

emotion emerges from cognition molded by culture

Evolutionary psychology:

emotions involve coordinated cognitive programs that work together

The amygdala

•Mostconnected structure in the forebrain•“Withoutthe amygdala the evolutionary value of fear is lost” (p. 438)

•Criticalto implicit fear-based conditioning (Pavlovian)

•Criticalfor explicit fear-based learning as well (Liz likes dogs. Fang is a mean dog.Liz fears fang.)

•Modulatesarousal in relation to memory and enhances retention and modulates hippocampalconsolidation

Emotion and decision making

•Damasio’spatient with damage to orbitofrontal cortex; seemingly diminished emotionsshould have improved decision making, but instead he made terrible decisions.First to recognize that emotions needed to optimize decision making!•DevisedIowa Gambling Task with low payout/low risk decks and high payout/high riskdecks. Normals favor net winnings, those with OrbFC damage do not.Physiological arousal needed to guide decision making. This manifests insomatic markers showing physiological arousal. OrbFC uses these responses toassess reward.

Emotion and decision making pt 2

•3types of emotion influence decision making: 1. Your current emotional state, 2.Your anticipatory emotions prior to the decision, 3. Emotion you expect to feelafter you have made the decision

•Extinctionof a conditioned response (learning there has been a change in reward patterns)requires change in initial perception. Damage to OrbFC “results in the inability to respond to changing patternsof reward and punishment” (p. 448).

•OFCappears to have distinct regions related to reward and punishment. Damage leadsto inability to assess and make good decisions. Do not feel regret oranticipate negative consequences to their choices.

•Regretthen leads to risk aversion

Emotion and social stimuli

•Amygdaladamage: S.M. can’t recognize fear in a face

•OFCincreasingly activated by angry faces•Thosewith anxiety have increased amygdala activity with fearful expressions, evensubliminally

•Onceagain, the eyes are the window to the soul, particularly if they are fearful.“I could see the fear in his eyes.”

•Amygdalaalso activated by happy, but not sad faces

•Eyecontact is the key! S.M. could recognize fear if she was instructed to focus onthe eyes.•Amygdalaactive in the categorization of people into groups/racial stereotyping.Activated in white people when seeing unfamiliar black faces, correlated withracial bias. Effect diminished with longer presentations of faces.

Cognitive control of emotion

•Emotionalregulation better in those with increased L frontal lobe activation vs.R frontal lobe activation

•Healthierto control emotions or does suppressed anger lead to HTN? “The psychologicalliterature indicated what it was healthier to control and regulate youemotions, while the literature on physical health advanced the idea thatchronically suppressing emotions such as anger resulted in HTN and otherphysical ailments” (p. 457) What’s the heuristic here?

•Infilm study reappraisal and suppression reduced emotion expressive behavior, butsuppression boosted SNS activity.

•Isthis study really just an example of positive test strategy?

Cognitive control of emotion pt 2

•Reappraisalincreases PFC/ACC activity modulating structures such as the amygdala•Participantslooked at negative images. Self focused group imagine themselves in the image;situation focused group to imagine the situation becoming worse, or better…

•Guesswhat the amygdala did? Activity went up or down depending upon the regulatorygoal. PFC is in control of modulation!

•Ultimatelythe PFC and ACC were key to the appraisal and modulation process

•Affectiveflexibility: don’t want to lose money and you do, amygdala kicks in, alsonegativity bias as PFC can’t completely eradicate negative stimuli

Six Dimensions of emotional style

Resilience:How quickly to recover—L PFC highly connected to the amygdala in most resilient

Outlook:Positivity—(NucAcc) ventral striatum (in basal ganglia) and linked PFC are key•Socialintuition: empathy—high fusiform gyrus, low amygdala. People puzzled by othershave the opposite

Self-awareness/interoception:insula size matters!

Sensitivityto context: hippo with healthy network is the key

Attention:PFC is the key (connects us back to Kahneman)

The insula

•Insulaactivity correlated with interoception. Key to experiencing emotion

•Activewhen experiencing emotions both at the physical and emotional level; thejunction for integration of cognitive and emotional info•Associatedwith risk aversion, perception of positive emotions

•Theamygdala critical for arousal related to negative/fearful stimuli, but notpositive stimuli

Disgust, Happiness, and Love

•Directlink to the insula, mirror neurons activate in viewers appearing to simulatethe experience

•“Thisline of thought implies a role for emotion in empathy and theory of mind”

•Whatis happiness? is it flow? or just eating and sex?

•Love,extremely complex and multifaceted in highly distributed networks

Theory of mind (often abbreviated ToM)

is the ability to attribute mental states—beliefs, intents, desires, pretending, knowledge, etc.—to oneself and others and to understand that others have beliefs, desires, intentions, and perspectives that are different from one's own.

Damasio and evolution

•Damasiobegins with his focus on the central challenge of all life forms: maintainhomeostasis•Whilepreviously it has always been well understood that deviations producephysiological reactions recognition of mental experiences—feelings and creationof “a ‘felt experience’ facilitates learning of the conditions responsible forhomeostatic imbalances, as well as anticipation of future adverse or favorableconditions. In this way, feelings provide an additional level of regulation ofbehavior.” (p.143)

•Feelingsarise from older regions of the brain•Rootedin events in single cells, particularly the unmyelinated axons conveyinghumoral and visceral information to the CNS•Relevantto depression (anxiety), drug addiction, pain


•Feelingshave always tended to reference body states

•Includefeelings from thirst and hunger to sadness, joy, and fear to complex feelingssuch as compassion and shame

•Forall the “dominant mental contents describe a state of the body in which thecondition of the viscera (for example heart, lungs, gut, and skin) has a keyrole” (p. 143)

•Feelingsthus provide a “subjective experiential window into the processes of liferegulation”•Feelingsrequire neural maps of body states

Evolution of neural maps

•Mapsallow for monitoring to guide correction•Mapsmay have preceded felt experience•However,feelings provided additional benefits to life regulation!

•Wehave both interoceptive and exteroceptive neural maps

Drives/Emotions facilitate Homeostasis

•Actionprograms key to maintaining homeostasis

•Twomain types of action programs: Drives and Emotions

•Drivessatisfy basic instinctual needs (hunger, thirst, libido, care and attachment,exploration and play)

•Emotions:disgust, fear, anger, sadness, joy, compassion, shame, etc. triggered byexteroceptive stimuli

•Deploymentinfluenced by “learning (conditioning), which also allows the extension andtransfer of homeostatic goals to objects and situations that become imbued withbiological value: for example, money, power, or drugs.” (p. 145).

•Usesthe action program of fear as an example of how it is both an emotion (set ofprogrammed actions triggered by fear inducing stimulus) and a feeling(conscious experience of fear).

Neural substrates of feeling

•Neuralsubstrates offeeling foundin regions of the brain that “exhibit topographically organized somatic maps”

•Structuresin the subcortical grey—amygdala, ventral striatum, and basal ganglia—arecritical to generating homeostatic actions. No maps so no direct role infeelings but shape the state of the body

•Neuralsubstrates of feelings found in two distinct phylogenetic levels: the primitivelevels of the brainstem and more recently evolved cerebral cortex.

The brainstem and interoception

•Interoception:“the sense that continuously monitors the internal milieu and provides the CNSwith real-time information on the state of the body.” (p. 146)

•Mostprominent interoceptive pathways are the lamina I spinothalamocortical pathwayand the vagus nerve

•laminaI spinothalamocortical pathway conveys sensory information from most tissues

•Vagusnerve conducts information from the viscera

•Interoceptiveinformation connects to brainstem structures and reticular formation and thisinformation forms a map,”Such a map has a crucial role in life regulation and,in all likelihood, simultaneously provides a neural basis for the emergence offeeling states•SCkey to visual attention and key role in “processes of mind and self”

Feelings and the insula

•Interoceptiveinformation from brainstem remapped in the insula and somatosensory cortices,“and functional neuroimaging studies consistently implicate the human insula inboth interoceptive and emotional feelings.” (p. 147)

•Damageto posterior half of the brainstem leads to coma and vegetative state: feelingsand sentience abolished

•Damageto upper half of the brainstem lead to locked-in syndrome

Insulanot required, but often engaged in processing of feelings and appears to have akey role in modulation of body states

•Theinsula is “essential for the introduction of feelings into the flow ofcognitive processes and thus facilitate the crosstalk between cognition andfeeling…the absence of which would favor simpler behavioral patterns dominatedby feeling states.” (p. 148)

The evolution of feelings

•“Non-humanmammals, birds, reptiles…clearly display behaviors that are consistent withemotions and feelings” (p. 148)

•Feelingsnot just in humans (does anyone know why he takes the time to report this?)

•Our“complex cerebral cortex…probably contribute to more enriched and refinedfeeling states than those found in species with simpler nervous systems.” (p.148)

The cellular basis of feelings

•Crucialcells in the interoceptive system, “specifically in the unmyelinated axonsconveying signals from humoral and visceral aspects of the body” to thebrainstem.•Interoceptivepathways have very low levels of myelination!

•Thevagus nerve is predominantly devoid of myelin (80%) with only 20% poorlymyelinated. Highly unusual for a cranial nerve•Unmyelinatedfibers also “mediate the affective aspects of touch”

Why unmyelinated?

•Myelinis metabolically/energetically expensive•Conductionspeed unnecessary in these applications? But pain is time sensitive!

•Thirdpossibility: Myelin has pleiotropic effects, thus advantageous for someapplications but not others

•Processeshindered by ionic exchanges would be hindered by myelin; enhaptic transmissionallowed by unmyelinated axons “axonal trunks with extensive chemosensitivesurface would significantly increase the sensitivity of a fiber…extensivevulnerability of the neuron to its extracellular environment underlies thecellular basis of sentience” (p. 149).

Unmyelinated nervous system

•Myelinblocks the binding of ligands in interoceptive fibers; “certain unmyelinatedfibers (for example, in the vagus nerve) can be activated bychemostimulation…along the axonal length…ATP, serotonin, actylcholine andcapsaicin—are found in the trunk of these fibres” (p. 149). This way with fewernerve fibers can cover these internal areas of the organism.•Myelinationgood for speed, unmyelinated fibers more important in pathways involved ininteroception and feelings.

•Enhaptictransmission “thought to occur in the mammalian olfactory nerve, vagus nerve,peripheral nerves, spinal cord, and certain cortical areas” (p.149)

From sentience to feelings

•Essentiallysingle cell activation is amplified through synchronization into a systemslevel phenomenon; minor changes recruit a few neurons whereas strongerdeviations impact proportionally more fibers creating stimulus intensity,“major disturbances would recruit a large number of axons and elicit not onlyautonomic corrections but also become consciously perceived (via a feeling),leaving room for voluntary behavioral adaption. (p. 150)

Damasio’s concluding remarks

•“Acrucial characteristic of feelings is their intrinsic valence—the direction,positive or negative, and the intensity of the homeostatic deviations proxiedby feelings—which helps to explain why the organism follows the orientationprovided by a feeling” (p. 150)

•Exteroceptiveprocesses which evolved later do not contain intrinsic valence; “Thus, highercognition borrows the labels first developed as a component of homeostaticregulation.” (p. 150).•“Theadvent of feelings was simultaneously the advent of the mind….Feelings pavedthe way for the establishment of higher levels of cognition and consciousness,culminating in the modern human mind. Accordingly, shedding light on theunderpinnings of feeling is likely to provide insights into consciousness andthe mind.”•Depression,substance abuse, pain, centered on pathologies of feeling and mechanism forthese pathologies poorly understood and therapies considered unsatisfactory.Further understanding of the neurophysiology of feelings thus very important.

The Frontal Lobes

•Prefrontalcortex constitutes half of the frontal lobes in humans!

•Dividedinto lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), frontal polar region (FP), orbitofrontalcortex (OFC) and medial frontal cortex (MFC)(why not mPFC, we’ll have to askGazzaniga?)

•Relatedto the emergence of complex cognitive capabilities

•Occurlate in development “as evident in the “me-oriented” behavior of the infant andthe rebellious teenager” (p. 509)

What is Cognitive Control?

•Thestory of a once driven young man who “lost his ego” due to an astrocytoma

•Sometimesreferred to as executive function“allows us to use our perceptions, knowledge, and goals to bias the selectionof action and thoughts from a multitude of possibilities” (p. 508)

•Prefrontalcortex is the key!

Impact of Frontal Lobe Damage

•Discussionof perseveration, apathy, and impulsivity as common problems. Poor planning,decision making, lack of consideration of consequences, poor self organizationand social awareness.

•Describebehavior as stimulus driven, but without goal orientation

•Lhermitteand utilization behavior—we see this a lot!

Goal oriented behavior

•Goaloriented actions based on a causal relationship between action and reward

•Habitdefined as an action no longer under the control of a reward? (This does notmake sense to me, how about you?) Eating junk food, smoking, turning on the carradio as examples…•Theythen go on to place all this on a continuum, with a soda machine vs. healthkick example.

PFC is needed for working memory but notfor associative memory?

•Prefrontalcortex critical for memory•Prefrontallesions impair spatial, not symbolic or associative memory (How does thisrelate to Baddeley?)

•Discusstemporal disruption with frontal lobe damage and the woman who could notsequence meal preparation as a consequence•Thenthere were a lot of details we will not go over…


related to self control

Value related to the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)


OFC related to Damasio and risk aversion and the assessment of changing conditions of risk;

•OFC key for value representation


-related to the environment

-LPFC important for modulatory control

-damage to this area appears to influencebias or heuristics!

- “highlighting its role in working memoryand attention” but we really shouldn’t forget its role in emotional regulationand risk aversion as well


MFC related more to the self

Emotion and decision making

•Damasio’spatient with damage to orbitofrontal cortex; seemingly diminished emotionsshould have improved decision making, but instead he made terrible decisions.First to recognize that emotions needed to optimize decision making!

Damage to OrbFC...

•Extinctionof a conditioned response (learning there has been a change in reward patterns)requires change in initial perception. Damage to OrbFC “results in the inability to respond to changing patternsof reward and punishment” (p. 448).

•OFCappears to have distinct regions related to reward and punishment. Damage leadsto inability to assess and make good decisions. Do not feel regret oranticipate negative consequences to their choices.

•Regretthen leads to risk aversion


critical for memory

goal planning

is a dynamic filtering mechanism

PFC damage: trouble with task switching

Prefrontal lesions impair spatial, notsymbolic or associative memory

•PFCmodulates sound: key to cocktail party effect?•PFCmodulates visual processing with apparent loss of inhibitory control with agingor transcranial magnetic stimulation

The Frontal Lobes

Dividedinto lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), frontal polar region (FP), orbitofrontalcortex (OFC) and medial frontal cortex (MFC)(why not mPFC, we’ll have to askGazzaniga?)

MFC: Ensuring Goal Oriented Behaviors succeed

•Schemacontrol units get activated but watch out for contention scheduling!

•Supersededby the supervisory attentional system(SAS): That’s System 2 to you and me…•Keyto this monitoring system: The MFC and in particular the ACC

•Dividedattention requires a high level attentional system and key point ofactivation?: ACC

•MFCand ACC engaged when response conflict is high (relates back to impulsecontrol?) Stroop test shows boosted activation in the MFC

•Finallydiscuss individuals with MFC damage that do not exhibit cognitive controlissues anticipated, but do not have expected arousal patterns with exercise andmath problems? What’s missing?

Diabetes, physical activity, andcognitive functioning (Colberg et. al, 2008)

•T2diabetes associated with decreased cognitive function•Increasesrisk of dementia 2-3 fold due to both vascular and neurodegenerative processes•Physicalactivity decreases insulin resistance, reduces dementia risk, slow cog. declineand vascular dementia and AD•Researchquestion: Can exercise offset risks of T2 diabetes•MMSEand Slums scores associated with physical activity measures including positiveassociation with lt. exercise (week) mod. exercise (wknd.) and inverseassociation with sitting (wknd.)