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35 Cards in this Set

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The term refers to the operations involved when we select for further processing a limited subset

of information from the total information available to us from our sensory systems and stored mental

representations.

a. arousal

b. vigilance

c. attention

d. cumg
c. attention
In one ofthe earliest studies of visual attention, Helmholtz (1894) constructed a screen on which letters were painted at various distances from the center. Following a brief illumination, he found that

a. he could perceive letters located within the focus of his attention better than letters outside, even when his eyes remained at the center of the screen.

b. although he was unable to remember all the letters on the screen, he could be cued to

attend to the top, middle, or bottom row by a tone played just before the illumination.

c. he could perceive letters located within the focus of his attention better than letters

outside, but only ifhe moved his eyes to bring the letters to the center of his visual field.

d. he could remember all the letters on the screen, demonstrating that visual iconic memory
increases in capacity with attentional focus.
a. he could perceive letters located within the focus of his attention better than letters outside, even when his eyes remained at the center of the screen.
During a particularly boring lecture, you carefully note the time on a clock that is mounted on the side wall of the classroom while keeping your eyes fixated on the professor's face. This is an example of

a. covert attention.

b. inhibition of return.

c. extinction.

d. conjunction search.
a. covert attention.
The ability to direct attention independently of gaze or eye fixation is called

a. overt attention.

b. covert attention.

c. the attentional spotlight.

d. visual search.
b. covert attention.
_____________ is the phenomenon of being able to follow one conversation in the presence of many other
simultaneous conversations.

a. Dichotic listening

b. Vigilance

c. The cocktail party effect

d. Binaural listening
c. The cocktail party effect
[ ] is the idea that a stimulus does not have to be completely analyzed before it can be either selected for further processing or rejected as irrelevant.

a. Sensory arousal

b. Dichotic perception

c. Early selection

d. Late selection
c. Early selection
In dichotic listening studies, it has been found that a participant usually notices when his or her own name is embedded in the ignored channel. This finding suggests that

a. selection occurs late in perceptual processing.

b. selection occurs early in perceptual processing.

c. there is a separate cognitive system for name recognition.

d. recognition of familiar stimuli does not require attention.
a. selection occurs late in perceptual processing.
To explain dichotic listening findings such as the observation that a participant usually notices when his or her own name is embedded in the ignored channel, Treisman (1969) proposed that

a. unattended information is not completely excluded from higher analysis, but merely attenuated.

b. attention can be explained only in terms oflate, rather than early, selection mechanisms.

c. relatively unique types of stimuli, such as names, do not require attention for processing.

d. familiar stimuli that have been learned previously by participants do not require attention
for processing.
a. unattended information is not completely excluded from higher analysis, but merely attenuated.
Both early- and late-selection models of attention share the idea that

a. a large proportion of incoming sensory information is filtered from further analysis before meaning is extracted.

b. information is excluded from higher-level processing only after stimuli have been identified.

c. the human information processing system cannot fully process every piece of information it receives.
d. semantic encoding and analysis precede selection in information processing.
a. a large proportion of incoming sensory information is filtered from further analysis before meaning is extracted.
All of the following describe differences between early-selection and late-selection models of attention

EXCEPT

a. early-selection models argue that selection occurs before semantic analysis of incoming stimuli.

b. late-selection models argue that human information processing has limited capacity, whereas early-selection models argue that capacity is unlimited.

c. early-selection models argue that all higher-level information processing requires the use

of attention.

d. late-selection models argue that a stimulus may be categorized or even identified before
selection.
b. late-selection models argue that human information processing has limited capacity, whereas early-selection models argue that capacity is unlimited.
Which of the following phenomena is the most consciously mediated?

a. Inhibition of return

b. Reflexive attention

c. Exogenous cuing

d. Endogenous cuing
d. Endogenous cuing
The Posner spatial cuing task (1980) showed that cuing participants to the location of an upcoming target

a. increased reaction time to detect the target.

b. decreased reaction time to detect the target.

c. failed to affect reaction time but did increase detection accuracy.

d. failed to affect either reaction time or detection accuracy.
b. decreased reaction time to detect the target.
Results of the Posner spatial cuing task showed that cuing participants to the location of an upcoming target decreased their reaction time to detect it because attention enhanced perceptual processing for the target. This finding is most consistent with models of attention.

a. gating

b. bottleneck

c. early-selection

d. late-selection
c. early-selection
You are working diligently in the chemistry laboratory when suddenly a small explosion occurs in the rear of the room, immediately and automatically capturing your attention. This is an example of

a. inhibition of return.

b. exogenous cuing.

c. voluntary orienting.

d. early selection.
b. exogenous cuing.
On one trial of the Posner spatial cuing task, a flash of light validly cued the location of an upcoming target and enhanced the participant's reaction time to detect that target. Which of the following statements about the participant's subsequent responding to this location is most accurate?

a. Detection of targets that appear in this position on subsequent trials will also be enhanced.

b. Detection of targets that appear in this position on subsequent trials will be unaffected.

c. Detection of targets that appear in this position on subsequent trials will be inhibited from now on.

d. Detection of targets that appear in this position on subsequent trials will be temporarily inhibited.
d. Detection of targets that appear in this position on subsequent trials will be temporarily inhibited.
The observation that participants are actually slower to detect targets that appear at recent previously

attended locations is called

a. attentional fatigue.

b. exogenous cuing.

c. inhibition of return.

d. pop-out search.
c. inhibition of return.
You are looking for a friend who is supposed to meet you in a crowded lecture hall. You know that she is wearing a bright purple sweater and glasses. Which kind of visual search best describes this situation?

a. Conjunction search

b. Feature search

c. Pop-out search

d. Parallel search
a. Conjunction search
Visual search for targets requires the use of selective attention, whereas visual search for

____ targets can occur without attention.

a. pop-out / conjunction

b. pop-out / feature

c. conjunction / feature

d. feature / conjunction
c. conjunction / feature
Research using a voluntary cuing experimental design has shown that

a. attention can be directed to both spatial and nonspatial features of target stimuli, but only by exogenous cues.

b. attention can be directed only to spatial features of target stimuli, and only by exogenous cues.

c. attention can be directed in advance to both spatial and nonspatial features of target stimuli.

d. attention can be directed in advance only to spatial features of target stimuli
c. attention can be directed in advance to both spatial and nonspatial features of target stimuli.
Alexandra believes that the effects of attention on perception occur very quickly on a fine temporal scale. Which of the following techniques should she use to investigate the changes in perceptual processing that may accompany focused attention?

a. CT (computed tomography)

b. PET (positron emission tomography)

c. MEG (magnetoencephalography)

d. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
c. MEG (magnetoencephalography)
Techniques such as EEG are particularly well suited to studies of attention. However, one difficulty in using these techniques is that

a. one must also use a structural neuroimaging technique to isolate the source of attentional activation to a specific brain structure.

b. one must also use a functional neuroimaging technique to isolate the source of attentional activation to a specific brain structure.

c. EEG is an expensive and extremely invasive neuroimaging technique.

d. electrical signals in the brain are not affected by the use of focused attention.
a. one must also use a structural neuroimaging technique to isolate the source of attentional activation to a specific brain structure.
The fact that Woldorff and colleagues (1993) found that the auditory NI waveform is generated by cells in the primary and secondary auditory cortex provides neurophysiological evidence

a. in support of early selection.

b. in support of late selection.

c. that attentional functions are controlled by the temporal lobe.

d. that attentional functions are controlled by cortical rather than subcortical structures.
a. in support of early selection.
Directing attention to a visual stimulus produces a positive ERP waveform called the PI waveform if

participants are

a. overtly, rather than covertly, directing attention.

b. selectively attending to the stimulus based on its location rather than its color.

c. exogenously (externally) cued rather than endogenously (internally) cued to the stimulus.

d. shown a different stimulus in each eye.
b. selectively attending to the stimulus based on its location rather than its color.
The PI ERP is associated most closely with the

a. direction of attention to the spatial location of a visually presented object.

b. pop-out of feature-based visual targets in visual search.

c. direction of attention to the specific ear through which a particular signal is presented.
d. increased activity of cells in the primary and secondary auditory cortex.
a. direction of attention to the spatial location of a visually presented object.
Studies of attention employing the PI waveform and the Nl waveform suggest that

a. both vision and audition involve a late-selection mechanism.

b. both vision and audition involve an early-selection mechanism.

c. visual attention primarily involves early selection, whereas auditory attention primarily involves late selection.

d. auditory attention primarily involves early selection, whereas visual attention primarily
involves late selection.
b. both vision and audition involve an early-selection mechanism.
A patient who had a stroke in her right parietal lobe has extinction as a result of her injury. This person will fail to report a

a. single visual stimulus presented to the contralesional visual field.

b. single visual stimulus presented to the ipsilesional visual field.

c. visual stimulus presented to her contralesional visual field if another stimulus is simultaneously presented to her ipsilesional visual field.

d. visual stimulus presented to her ipsilesional visual field if another stimulus is simultaneously presented to her contralesional visual field.
c. visual stimulus presented to her contralesional visual field if another stimulus is simultaneously presented to her ipsilesional visual field.
Patients with extinction are unable to detect a visual stimulus presented on the contralesional side of space if

a. the stimulus is presented alone in the visual field.

b. this stimulus is presented at the same time as a stimulus on the ipsilesional side of the visual field.

c. there is no cue that precedes the stimulus.

d. the stimulus is presented with another at a more lateral position in the contralesional
visual field.
b. this stimulus is presented at the same time as a stimulus on the ipsilesional side of the visual field.
The involuntary failure to attend to sensory stimuli presented in the side of space opposite to the site of brain injury (in the absence of sensory problems) is called tbe syndrome.

a. agnosia

b. neglect

c. blindsight

d. hemianopia
b. neglect
According to the three-stage model of attention of Posner and colleagues (1984), injury to this brain structure results in a deficit in moving focused attention from a particular location in the visual field to another.

a. The posterior parietal lobe

b. The pulvinar nucleus of the thalamus

c. The superior colliculus

d. The lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus
c. The superior colliculus
The primary functional problem that results from posterior parietal injury and that produces the neglect

syndrome is that patients

a. fail to process sensory information from the ipsilesional side of space.

b. fail to process sensory information from the contralesional side of space.

c. cannot disengage attention from information in the ipsilesional side of space.

d. cannot disengage attention from information in the contralesional side of space.
c. cannot disengage attention from information in the ipsilesional side of space.
When Bisiach and Luzzatti (1918) asked patients with the neglect syndrome to describe their own mental images of the Italian city in which they lived, the researchers found that

a. these patients demonstrated a deficit in moving attention from one location in their

mental images to another.

b. patients had great difficulty in generating mental images in general.

c. there was no evidence of neglect for internally generated mental images.

d. the patients also neglected the contralesional side of their own mental images.
d. the patients also neglected the contralesional side of their own mental images.
The symptoms of patients with neglect and Balint's syndrome reflect disruption of the pathway.

a. ''what''

b. ''where''

c. geniculostriate

d. tectopulvinar
b. ''where''
The main deficit in Balint's syndrome is that patients can focus attention on only

a. contralesional objects.

b. ipsilesional objects.

c. one object at a time.
d. the foveal part of the visual field.
c. one object at a time.
The idea that we successfully perform many tasks even though we have little conscious awareness of the information processing operations that are involved in completing these tasks is best supported by

a. the Stroop effect.

b. experiments with the visual search task.

c. studies of subliminal perception.

d. investigations of explicit long-term memory.
c. studies of subliminal perception.
Limiting the amount of conscious awareness that we have for our own information processing may have the advantage of all ofthe following EXCEPT

a. this allows us to filter out sensory information before it has received much processing by the brain.

b. this reduces the number of extra cognitive operations that accompany conscious processing.

c. this minimizes the amount of time for information processing to be completed.

d. this reduces the amount of metabolic resources that are used for information processing
a. this allows us to filter out sensory information before it has received much processing by the brain.