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OSI 7 LAYER MODEL NAMES

Layer 7- Application


Layer 6- Presentation


Layer 5- Session


Layer 4- Transport


Layer 3- Network


Layer 2- Data Link


Layer 1- Physical

Please Do Not Throw Sausage Pizza Away


All People Seem To Need Data Processing

What unique identifier does NICs use, how many bits are they and what forms are the bits displayed in.

NICs use MAC addresses which are 48 bits which is displayed in hexadecimal format

How does the network know where data should go? And how is that address formed?

How many numbers are there in hexadecimal numbering system? And what is used to represent two digit numbers?

16 numbers in hexadecimal (0-15) . 10-15 is represented with Alphabets A-F as we need singular characters to represent values

MAC Addressing: How does hexadecimal work with Binary?

Each hexadecimal character represents four digits in Binary

What does each hexadecimal character represent?

How many Binary bits are in a MAC address

48 bits... Each hexadecimal character equals 4 Binary bits eg. 8= 1000, 15= 1111

There are 12 hexadecimal characters

What does the first six digits in the MAC address represent?

The NIC manufacturer (this is unique to the manufacturer given to them by the IEEE referred to as the [OUI] organizationally unique identifier) the rest are the manufacturers unique serial number

It's given to them by the IEEE.

Another name for MAC-48

EUI-48 (extended unique identifier)

Actual current name given by IEEE

What does each Binary character mean?

Electrical pulses. 0= no charge, 1= a charge

There is only 1 and 0 in Binary, they represent something

What does FCS stand for?

Frame check sequence - it uses Binary math called cyclic redundancy check [CRC] to verify that the data arrived

It's a field in a generic frame to verify data arrival.

How many Bytes of data does most frames hold?

1500 Bytes

A frame can only carry a certain amount of data or Bytes.

The most prominent difference between a hub and switch.

A hub takes a frame and distributes it to all connected to it, the one with the matching destination MAC processes the data and the rest deletes. A switch sends only to the correct destination MAC it has on the frame

A hub is a dumb device, a switch is more intelligent

What does a NIC send out to know everyone's address on the network

A broadcast (the MAC address broadcast is FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF)

A NIC sends out something in which all devices on the network will respond to.

Summary of data frame movement across the network via a hub

-Data sent from OS to NIC


-NIC creates frame, adds FCS to the data and puts into frame


-NIC puts destination and senders address onto frame


-NIC sends frame through cable


-Hub receives through cable, creates copies and sends to every other system on network


-system erases if destination address does not match


-system processes data if address matches


Destination NIC strips frame info and sends data to software for processing.

Layer 1-2 breakdown

What does LLC stand for and what does it do?

Logic Link Control. It talks to the OS via device drivers to handles multiple protocols, and provides flow control.

The second job of a NIC

NICs should be placed in what OSI layer? For exam purposes

Layer 2 for exams.Even though it belongs in both layer 1 and 2.

Exam purpose

What networking protocol has been put in place instead of MAC physical addressing?

TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol. (- logical addressing)

MAC is physical addressing while a logical addressing has been adopted due to larger networks

What has hubs been replaced with

Switches

A more intelligent device for large networks with more features

What device handles assigning IP addresses and connects subnets?

Router

A magic box

What layer does TCP/IP belong in?

Layer 3- Network

OSI MODEL

What goes inside of a frame when dealing with TCP /IP?

Packets

There is two containers that go from one destination to another in TCP /IP

What is encapsulation and de-encapsulation or decapsulation

Encapsulation is the entire process of preparing data to be sent out and adding frames as it goes down the OSI model.


Decapsulation is reversing and stripping all the frames added when received as it goes up the OSI model

What does the OSI model do to the data when being processed

How many layers does the TCP /IP model have and what are they

4 layers.


Application


Transport


Internet


Link/Network Interface

TCP/IP Model Link layer combines which layers of the OSI Model

Layer 1- Physical & Layer 2- Data Link

Physical Connections, deals with complete frames

What does the Internet layer Work with?

IP Packets

It needs to get these from the sender to the destination

TRUE OR FALSE: Routers and IP addressing is also part of the Internet Layer

True

What is the equivalent of the Internet layer in the OSI model

Network layer

TRUE OR FALSE: The internet layer makes sure all the data gets to the destination in good order

FALSE, another layer takes care of this

Which layers in the OSI model equals to the Transport layer in the TCP/IP model

Transport layer, Session layer and a bit of Application layer

What Protocol is a connection-oriented protocol

TCP- Transmission Control Protocol

What Protocol is a connectionless protocol

UDP- User Datagram Protocol

What does a Connection-oriented protocol do?

That the sender and recipient have verified that they have a good connection before sending data (TCP)

The definition of Connection-oriented protocol

What does a Connectionless protocol NOT do?

Does not verify a good connection with recipient before sending data (UDP)

The definition of Connectionless protocol

The link layer combines which layers of the OSI model

Physical and Data Link layer

Everything to do with complete frames

What does the Internet layer deal with and what is its OSI counterpart

IP packets and IP addressing , Network Layer - this layer deals with getting IP packet creation and getting it to next router/destination regardless of, if they get there in good order or not

TCP /IP: What happens to the frame and packets as they move from one router to another

The router strips the frame and adds a new frame over the packet to send to the next router or destination device.

The routers pass the data packets by doing this

TCP /IP : What happens when the data packets reach the destination subnet router

It matches the destination IP with the destination MAC in the frame

It matches the logical address with something

TRUE OR FALSE, TCP/IP: The packet stays unchanged while going to its destination while the frame gets striped and new frame added at every router.

TRUE

TRUE OR FALSE; TCP /IP : Layer 2 is the last layer to deal with hardware directly.

FALSE. Layer 3-Network is the last to deal directly with the hardware.

TCP /IP packets get sent from one NIC to another, drivers pass it to the software which handles the data.

What is the job description of Layer 4-Transport?

It cuts data into chunks called datagrams (no sequence) or segments (sequencing) on the senders end. Requests packets if not all is received and reassemble the data on the receiving end

How does it transport all the data perfectly

What is the job description of Layer 5-Session

It initiates sessions, accepts incoming sessions, and open & closes existing sessions

How does a session happen

How do you see all the sessions your computer is running from the command prompt?

netstat -a

Command for sessions running.

TCP /IP: Why does packets get transported in frames

Packets can be transfered through many different protocols, Frames adjust and converts to match with different protocols while the packets stay the same in the frame.

TCP /IP is not the only protocol in networking

TRUE OR FALSE : Layer 6-Presentation encrypts and decrypts data using protocols like SSL and TLS

TRUE

Layer 6 is responsible for Data conversions

TRUE OR FALSE: Layer 7-Application is the applications itself that processes data

FALSE, it is the code (API) built into the OS that programmers use to make their Applications network-aware and enhance the apps capabilities.

It's do to with networking specifically

What does API stand for

Application Programming Interface

Layer 7-Application uses

TRUE OR FALSE: TCP/IP layers counterparts are session and presentation

FALSE. Session and Transport with a Lil bit off Application

Transport layer: what is the protocol name for connection orientated protocols

TCP- Transmission Control Protocol

Transport layer: What is the protocol name of connectionless protocols

UDP- User Datagram Protocol

Transport Layer: segments use which protocol?

TCP (Connection Orientated Protocol)

Transport Layer: Datagrams use which protocol

UDP - connectionless Orientated Protocol

TRUE OR FALSE: Transport layer- sequence number, Flags and Acknowledgments are included in a UDP Frame

FALSE it has destination port, source port, length, checksum, data

It does not care if it reaches its destination

TCP/IP Model: Application layer combines which OSI layers

Session, Presentation and Application

The remainder layers

What are port numbers?

Applications are given port numbers ranging from 1 to 65535 to make applications work eg: port 80 =HTTP used for web pages

Which Data structure fits with the Link layer?

Frames

What encapsulation does it create?

What Data Structure fits the Internet Layer

IP packets

What Data Structure fits the transport layer

TCP segments and UDP datagrams

What Data Structure fits the Application layer

The data or payload starts and ends here