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9 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Nature

•behaviour is caused by innate characteristics:


-physiological/biological characteristics we are born with


-behaviour is therefore determined by biology.


•Determinist view- suggests all behaviour is determined by hereditary factors:


-inherited characteristics, or genetic make up. We are born with it.

Support for nature

•Gottesman and Shields, 1976 (genetic basis of schizophrenia)


- in adoption studies: compared biological parents and siblings and adoptive parents and siblings.


- in twin studies: compared concordance for MZ and DZ twins.



Results


- adoption argues found increased incidence of schizophrenia in adopted children with a schizophrenic biological parent.


-'normal' children fostered to a schizophrenic parent and adoptive parents of schizophrenic children showed little evidence of schizophrenia.


-twin studies found higher concordance rate for schizophrenia in MZ twins (58%) than DZ twins (12%)



Conclusion


Significant genetic input into the onset of schizophrenia. Genes responsible for predisposing a person to schizophrenia.

Nurture

•individuals behaviour is determined by the environment things people teach them, things they observe, and because of the different situations they are in.


• Determinist view- proposes all human behaviour is the result of interactions with the environment.

Support for nurture

Classical conditioning of fear; little Albert (Watson and raynor, 1920)



•conditioned Albert so that every time he saw a rat they hit a steel bar, every time he saw a rat he would remember the nose of the steel bar and be scared. Associated the noise with rats.



Conclusion


Provides evidence that the environment can be manipulated to create a phobic response and behaviour change.

Interaction

•behaviour is often a result of the interaction between nature and nurture.


•individuals characteristics may elicit particular responses in the other people. E.g.



-temperament, how active, responsive or emotional an infant is influences in part determines their caregivers response.


-gender, people tend to react differently to boys and girls due to expectations of masculine and feminine characteristics.


-aggression,displaying aggressive behaviour create particular responses from other people.

Rutter and Rutter (1993) Aggression hostility

•described how aggressive children think and behave in ways that lead other children to respond to them in a hostile manner.


•reinforces the anti social child's view of the world. Aggressive children tend to experience aggressive environments partly because they elicit aggressive responses.

Supporting approaches and perspectives

Supporting nature:


-physiological


-individual differences


-development



Supporting nurture:


-social


-behavioural



Psychodynamic is in between.

Problems with nature-nurture debate

•reductionist


•deterministic


•difficult to control variables



Determinism: Nature view of psychology is a determinist one- suggests behaviour is determined by hereditary factors (e.g. Language development)

Applications (nature-nurture)

Nature- drug therapies can be developed to treat behaviour or psychological problems that have a physiological origin. E.g. Ssri's used to treat depression.



Nurture- if behaviour is susceptible to environmental influences we need to consider how we adapt our environment. E.g. To promote helping behaviour, enhance learning, reduce aggression and decrease criminality.