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75 Cards in this Set

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Jamestown, VA
1607, first English settlement, motived by economics, failed to prepare for winter months
Pilgrims (Puritans in England)
austere religious group landed in Plimouth in 1619
Mayflower Compact
agreement whereby all signatories would follow rules established by majority vote; first constitution ratified in colonies; symbol of democracy
13 Original Colonies
Virginia, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Maryland, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Delaware, North Carolina, South Carolina, Pennsylvania, Georgia
French and Indian War (1754-1763)
British had to contend with other European powers interested in American conquest; British fought French and their allies for control of N. Am.; Britain kept control
Treaty of Paris 1763
Ended French and Indian War; Britain's purse drained and colonists' sense of dependence on Britain decreased
Salutary Neglect
wartime policy whereby colonies operated relatively unsupervised while Britain was fighting war
Stamp Act of 1765
imposed tax on documents to help support cost of British troops; protested by colonists; repealed (gave confidence and desire for self-rule)
Townshend Act
"Indirect" taxes imposed on colonists (taxes on imports); opposition widespread; boycotts of goods and protests organized
Boston Massacre
1770; colonists fired upon; created martyrs (including Crispus Attucks)
Boston Tea Party
1773; colonists threw imported tea overboard in Boston Harbor; symbolic and incendiary act
Coercive Acts (a.k.a. Intolerable Acts to patriots)
imposed by British; closed harbor until tea had been paid for, increased power of royal officials in MA and allowed for quartering of British troops anywhere
First Continental Congress
1774; called for repeal of Intolerable Acts and gathering of local militias
First Battle of Revolution
April 1775; Lexington/Concord
Second Continental Congress
1775; American independence declared, Declaration of Independence adopted 1776
Declaration of Independence
"when in the course of human events....we hold these truths to be self-evident..."; largely attributed to the work of Thomas Jefferson; based on John Locke's philosophy that govt inherits powers from the people
Constitution
Written in 1777 but allowed too much freedom for states. Rewritten and ratified after 1787
Shay's Rebellion
1786; poor farmers revolted against existing conditions in w. MA
Federalist Papers
written to support for Constitution in colonies by Hamilton, Madison, and Jay
Bill of Rights
1791; enumerated the rights of citizens; appended to Constitution
Louisiana Purchase
1803 - purchased Louisiana Territory from France; ambitious agenda of territorial expansion; guaranteed uninhibited exploration beyond Mississippi River
Lewis and Clark
Set off in 1804; govt-funded expedition of new territory in name of scientific and geographic research
War of 1812
Conflict with the British; caused by: desire for northwest expansion, impressment of sailors by Navy, British support of Am. Indian tribes, etc. D.C. burned by British.
Treaty of Ghent
Ended War of 1812; restored relations between two nations
Monroe Doctrine
1823; James Monroe issued; asserted that new nation's dominance in Western Hemisphere and instructed European nations to cease their interference on American continents
Manifest Destiny
19th century belief; divine justification for moving westward into new lands; focus on expanding boundaries for sake of economy and clout of the nation
Missouri Compromise of 1820
agreement passed to regulate slavery in new states; Missouri accepted as slave state, Maine as free; drew imaginary line dividing Louisiana Territory into two, free above, slavery below
Compromise of 1850
law allowed new territories to decide matter of slavery themselves
Civil War Origins
Pro vs. Anti Slavery in new territories; southern concern for inevitability of Northern control; Fugitive Slave Act; Dred Scott Case; etc. 1861: 11 southern states seceded
Fugitive Slave Act of 1850
Required citizens to capture and return escaped slaves under penalty of fine; outraged abolitionists
Dred Scott Case of 1857
Supreme Court ruled that slaves who resided temporarily in free states were still slaves, and Congress did not have authority to exclude slavery from a territory; can only be free citizen through birth or naturalization
Battle of Gettysburg 1863
Confederate Army sustained crippling loss of manpower
Emancipation Proclamation (1863)
issued by Lincoln; declared all slaves residing with Confederacy would be free; after this African American soldiers free to enlist
Grant and Sherman

Lee
Union generals


Confederate general; surrendered at Appomattox in 1865
Reconstruction
1865-77; Johnson carried out Lincoln's plans after assassination; aimed at re-invigorating economy of country as a whole, improving plight of former slaves, reorganize southern states
Industrialization
by 1900, 200,000 miles of railroad track; increased trade and supported growing economy; factory jobs increase
U.S in WWI (in five phrases of less)
WW1 breaks out in 1914; Americans favor neutrality until brutal U-boat attacks; Wilson lobbies to enter war; 3 million US troops deployed (1917); War ends 1918
Great Depression
Stock Market Crash of 10/29/1929. By 1932, 24% of Americans unemployed.
New Deal
Franklin Roosevelt enacted these reforms including agricultural and business regulation, public works projects, farm relief, establishment of Social Security system
Pearl Harbor
December 7, 1941 -- after Pres. Roosevelt led U.S. into war (before -- isolationism)
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
August 6, 1945 - atomic bomb dropped first, Japan refuses to surrender, second atomic bomb dropped. Japan surrenders.
Domino Theory
if one country in a region falls to communism, neighbors will as well; justified Vietnam War
CONSTITUTION
"we the people..."; highest law in U.S.; framework for government; 27 amendments so far (?); written in 1787; establishes system of checks and balances between three branches of govt.
BILL OF RIGHTS
First 10 amendments to Constitution; 1791; free speech, right to bear arms, protection from quartering, due process, protection from unreasonable search and seizure; trial by jury; etc.
"the rule of law"
no individual, organization, or govt body is above the law; our duty to follow and understand the law
Process of Creating a Law
representatives writes and introduces a bill; goes to a House of Rep committee and discussed/edited; debated and voted on in House; same thing then done in Senate. Committee blends House and Senate law and both have to approve final version. Then goes to president to be signed into law. Pres can sign, veto or ignore. If ignored and Congress is in session, after 10 days it becomes a law.
Massachusetts Constitution
Ratified in 1780. Oldest functioning constitution in the world. Protects rights of individual citizens and principles of federalism and popular sovereignty. Cities and Towns responsible for most govt. services.
Mayors and City Councils in MA
govern the cities, but towns are usually government by selectmen.
Board of Selectmen in MA
Usually elected for one- or two-year term.
Town Meeting in MA
tradition from Colonial times, still held regularly, allows direct participation in democratic process
Capitalist System
encourages innovation, competition, and an entrepreneurial spirit with aim of increased productivity and profit
Israel
great contribution is monotheism; area colonized (?) by Great Britain; modern state of Israel declared in 1948
Ancient Greece
lasting influence in science, philosophy, politics, games, literature, etc.; elements of democracy developed there; Draco - law belongs to all citizens; first democracy founded in Athens in approx. 500 BCE
Ancient Rome
conquered Greek dynasty; became regional power; conquered much of "known world"; Caesar - military conqueror and established calendar system; peace led to flourishing of arts and higher learning; began declining in third century
Pax Romana
First and second centuries CE - no major wars or internal conflicts; development of architecture, extensive road system, postal system; Roman law - fairness and constancy
Middle Ages (a.k.a. Dark Ages)
Post-Roman empire; church and feudal system exert power; political instability; Crusades - Christians vs. Muslims; Plague in 14th century
Feudal system
Nobles ruled over serfs (peasants); Serfs worked the land; Less powerful nobles (vassals) swore loyalty to powerful nobles, provided military protection
Renaissance
beginning of modern era - 1450; began in Italy; flourishing of arts and creativity; printing press in mid-15th century; Shakespeare; 14th-17th century
Renaissance HUMANISM
humanists would study ancient texts in the original, and appraise them through a combination of reasoning and empirical evidence
Reformation
Occurred during Renaissance: challenged dominance of Roman Catholic church/papal authority; Luther - 95 Theses in 1517; Humanism/Renaissance played direct role in sparking Reformation
Enlightenment
18th century (post-Renaissance); reason advocated as source of legitimacy and authority; question tradition; Locke - rights of natural people; Voltaire - supporter of social reform, human rights
French Revolution 1789 - 1804
Before - individual citizens' rights didn't exist; king/nobles/clergy in charge; rich vs. poor - HUGE separation; only poor taxed; France in trouble financially; people starving; Enlightenment ideals inspired revolutionaries; stormed the Bastille (symbol of nobility); absolutely monarchy soon gone; revolutionaries fought amongst themselves and executed many (Reign of Terror); war declared on France by other European nations; ended with Napoleon declaring himself Emperor of France
Estates-General
name of assembly of leaders of three estates -- nobility, clergy, commoners; met in May 1789 - to draft new tax policy; Third Estate (commoners) decided to declare itself the National Assembly and planned to create new constitution
French Rev. vs. Amer. Rev.
American Revolution officially began with a document, the Declaration of Independence; French Revolution officially began with an action, the Storming of the Bastille on July 14, 1789. The most obvious difference was that the American Revolution resulted in the newly independent United States, whereas the French Revolution overthrew its own government. However, the French people were greatly impressed with the ideals of freedom and democracy sought by the new United States, and these greatly influenced their thinking.
Industrial Revolution - 18th to 19th century
began in Great Britain; major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions of the times (wiki); intro of steam power
World War I causes
competition over resources in overseas colonies; Austria-Hungary vs. Serbia; Ferdinand assassination in 1914; other countries chose sides - Axis vs. Allies; began in 1914; Wilson tried to stay out; then sinking of Lusitania (128 U.S. died); Germany tried to get Mexico to join war and reclaim land from U.S.; U.S. joined in 1917; draft - 3 million people; ended in 1918
Treaty of Versailles
$33 billion in reparations from Germany to Allies; must accept blame for war (partly to blame for WWII); Germany lost land and all overseas colonies
World War II causes
Germany economically poor; bitter over loss of war; inflation high; high unemployment; govt. didn't have support of the people; Depression affected the world; rise of nationalism; turned to Hitler -- Nazis and Fascism; started building strong army (vs. Treaty of Versailles); Germany invaded Poland and war was declared by GB and France (1939); Japan on Germany's side; US stopped trading with Japan...then Pearl Harbor;
Fascism
power is concentrated in a single dictator; reject individualism; extreme patriotism; celebrates military strength and brute force; individual freedoms gone; strong countries have right to invade and conquer weak ones; Nazism unique brand of Fascism that involved biological racism and antiSemitism
Appeasement - 1937-39
policy of letting Hitler do what he wanted building his army and invading Czechoslovakia despite being vs. Treaty of Versailles; allowed Germany to grow too strong
Cold War
the continuing state of political conflict, military tension, proxy wars, and economic competition existing after World War II (1939–1945) between the Communist World – primarily the Soviet Union and its satellite states and allies – and the powers of the Western world, primarily the United States and its allies (wiki)
Marshall Plan
U.S. plan to aid in post-war European recovery
Perestroika ("restructuring") - mid-1980s
Gorbachev becomes more concerned with economic reform than arms race
Glasnost ("openness")
reduce corruption in Communist party and encourage increased contact with Western world
Decolonization
process where formerly European and U.S. colonies rejected foreign rule and protested further interference