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22 Cards in this Set

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Motivation

Purpose and driving force behind actions.




Internal or External

Primary motivation factors

instincts - innate fixed patterns


arousal -


drives


needs

Instinct Theory

people perform certain behaviors because of these evolutionarily programmed instincts





Arousal Theory

people perform actions to maintain arousal, the state of being awake and reactive to stimuli, at an optimal level.

Yerkes-Dodson Law

performance is optimal at medium level of arousal

Drives

internal states of tension that beget particular behaviors focused on goals.




Primary: bodily processes


Secondary: learning and include accomplishment and emotion

Drive Reduction Theory

motivation arises from the desire to eliminate drives, which create uncomfortable internal states

Maslow's Heirarchy of Needs

1) Psychological


2) safety and security


3) love and belonging


4) self-esteem


5) self-actualizing

Self-determination Theory



role of three universal needs : 1) autonomy 2) competence 3) relatedness

Incentive Theory

desire to pursue rewards and avoid punishments

Expectancy-value theory

amount of motivation for a task is based on the individuals expectation of success and the amount that success is valued.

Opponent-process theory

explains motivation for drug use: as drug use increases, the body counteracts the effects, leading to tolerance and uncomfortable withdrawal symptoms.

Components of Emotion

1) Cognitive


2) Physiological


3) Behavioral

Universal Emotions

Anger


Fear


Happiness


Contempt


Suprise


Disgust


Sadness




SAD SF HC

Theory of Emotion: Jame Langer

Nervous system arousal leads to a cognitive response in which the emotion is labeled




Physiolgical response followed by emotion being labeled

Theory of Emotion: Cannon-Bard

simultaneous arousal of the nervous system and cognitive response lead to action




Physiological response and reeling emotion happen together

Theory of Emotion: Schachter-Singer

nervous system arousal and interpretation of context lead to a cognitive response.




Arousal followed by label of arousal for emotion to occur

Experience Emotion

Amygdala- helps interprets facial expression


Hippocampus- creates long term (eposodic)


Ventral prefrontal cortex- experiencing emotion


Ventromedial prefrontal cortex- controlling emotional responses from amygadala.

Stress Appraisal

Primary: classifying potential stressor as irrelevant, benign-positive, or stressful




Secondary: evaluating whether can cope with a stressor based on harm, threat, challenge



General Adaptation Syndrom Stages

1) Alarm - rxn to stress


2) Resistance - sympathetic engages in fight


3) Exhaustion - no longer can maintain response



Distress

unpleasant stressor

Eustress

positive stressor