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117 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
One of the earliest signs of overexposure to x-rays may be:
The use of dental images include the detection of:
bone loss in its early stages
Damage caused by ionizing x-radiation to genetic cells:
can affect future generations
When the master switch is on:
the electron cloud is emitted
The heart of the x-ray generating system is the:
the x-ray tube
The range of the shades of gray between black and white on an image is called:
Which of the following is an example of cumulative radiation exposure?
a. Cataracts
b. Leukemia
c. Cancer
d. None of the above

Heat is reduced from the target by:
insulating oil

copper stem
A radiograph that has an overall gray appearance is generally preferred. This x-ray is to have:
low contrast
In dentistry, the _______ the wavelengths of the x-rays, the greter their energy and their usefulness.
Thermionic emission refers to the:
release of electrons from the tunsten filament
How well the image reproduces fine detail or distinct outlines of an object is called:
Chronic radiation exposure occurs when ____ doses of radiation is received over a ____ time period.
smal; long
Which component of the x-ray machine functions in positioning the tubehead?
extension arm
The fuzzy or blurred area around an image is called the ____. It can be reduced by ____.
penumbra; limiting movement
One of the rules of radiation protection is to never stand closer than ____ feet from the x-ray unit during an exposure unless you are behind a barrier.
Which of the following tissues has the highest radiation sensitivity?
Small lymphocytes
The dentist says that the image has too much contrast; he would like to see more grays. What adjustment would you make?
increase kVp
When the exposure button is engaged, what happens?
a. The high-voltage circuit is activated.
b. Kilovolts drive the electrons to the target.
c. Electrons slam against the target producing the x-ray.
d. All of the above happen

A lead apron and a thyroid collar:
must be used on all patients for all exposures
Anything that occupies space and has a form or shape is:
_____ will improve the sharpness of a radiographic image.
Smaller film crystal size
When the electrons slam against the target, ____ are generated.
99% heat and 1% x-rays
The lead collimator is used to ____ of the primary beam.
restrict the size and shape
When in storage, the lead apron should be:
hung. folded.
The location where the x-rays are produced in the x-ray tube is called the:
focal spot
Which of the following statements is true concerning the structure of the atom?
The orbital path of an electron around the nucleus is called an electron shell.
Primary radiation is:
also called the useful beam

the beam of the x-ray that comes from the target
The x-ray was discovered on November 8, 1895, by:
Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen
A patient is concerned with radiation exposure. You can assure him that your ofice utilizes the ALARA concept. What does that include?
a. Reducing the number of exposures
b. Minimizing retakes
c. Keeping exposures levels as low as possible
d. All of the above

Damage to which type of cell is passed on to future generations?
genetic cell
The term ____ is used to describe areas that appear dark on the image;____ is the term used to describe areas that appear white or light gray.
radiolucent; radiopaque
Who should hold the film in the patient's mouth if the patient is unable to do so?
Parent or relative of the patient
The time lapse from x-ray exposure until noticeable damage occurs is known as:
the latent period
If you change the exposure time of the x-ray unit, what is affected?
Number of x-rays produced
A good technique for reducing the radiation exposure to both patient and operator is the use of:
fast film or digital imaging
Secondary radiation:
refers to x-radiation that is created when the primary beam interacts with matter.
The maximum permissible dose for an occupational worker for an individual 18 years old or over is ______ rems per year:
How much filtration is federally required for a dental x-ray machine operating over 70 kVp?
2.50 mm
Because the entire x-ray area is considered a radiation hazard area, a radiation sign must be posted in:
sight of patients; sight of personnel
The degree of density or blackness on an image is controlled by the:
milliampere seconds
The Guidelines for Prescribing Dental Radiographs issued by the American Dental Association and the FDA recommend which of the following dental imaging procedures for a pregnant patient?
Radiographic imaging procedures do not need to be altered because of pregnancy.
Filtration is used to _____ and are discs made of _____.
remove long wavelengths from the beam; aluminum
A (n)_____ is a minute bundle of energy that has no weight or mass.
The _____ setting controls the penetrating power of the x-ray beam.
kilovolt setting
Exposure of radiation:
no matter how small, has the potential to cause harmful biologic changes.
Which of the following organs are not more sensitive to x-rays and therefore not considered critical organs?
The dentist who is credited with the first practical use of radiographs in dentistry in 1896 is:
C. Edmund Kells
Which of the following structures will appear radiopaque on dental x-ray film?
Metal restorations
If a patient is small and petite, to get the same density radiograph it is best to reduce the:
exposure time; mA
The _____ is the portion of the x-ray machine which supplies the electrons to produce x-rays?
Dental film holders, used to position and hold the dental x-ray films in the patient's mouth, include which of the following?
XCP and disposable block; Eezee-Grip and EndoRay
The radiographic image is located within the _____ of the radiographic film.
gelatin that suspends the emulsion
_____- speed film is the newest and fastest film currently available.
The most commonly used film size for adult intraoral dentistry is size:
Which of the following is an extraoral film that is placed outside the mouth during x-ray exposure?
A film cassette made of plastic or metal is used to hold and protect the extraoral film. During exposure, the _____ side of the cassette must always face the patient.
A (n) _____ is a device that intensifies or increases the effect of the radiation and decreases the amount of exposure time needed when exposing an extraoral radiograph.
intensifying screen
______ hardens the film emulsion during film processing.
Automatic film processing requires _____ than manual film processing
less equipment
Which of the following time and temperature errors will result in reticulation of the film emulsion?
Sudden temperature change between developer and water bath
Developer cutoff will result in a _____ border.
straight white
The CCD found in direct digital imaging sensors is made of:
Which category of digital imaging is similar to faxes and video equipment, which use a sensor with a cord that is attached to the computer?
Direct digital radiography
Positioning instruments in digital radiography:
assist in film placement; keep the patient's fingers from being exposed
Film speed is determined by the:
thickness of silver halide crystals; present of the radiosensitive dyes
The purpose of the lead foil in the dental film packet is to:
reduce film fogging
When placing a dental film in the patient's mouth, the white side is placed _____ the tube and the raised do to the _____.
toward; occlusal or incisal
Which is not true of duplicating film's emulsion?
It appears shiny
The _____ is the safest place to store unopened boxes of dental film.
Which is the correct order of steps in manual film processing?
Develop, rinse, fix, wash
Solutions should have been changed in the in the processor one week ago. Continuing to use exhausted developer will result in _____ films.
The recommended distance between the safelight and where the films are unwrapped is:
4 feet
Which of the following will affect the life of the processing solutions?
a. Number of films processed
b. Time elapsed since last change
c. Size of films processed
d. All of the above

The gallon of fixer is mistaken for developer, and developer is mistakenly thought to be fixer. As a result, films pass through the fixer first, then the developer. Each film will now be:
The film is lighter than normal; what is the probable cause?
The developer solution is too weak
In the automatic processor, the developing solution is normally 81° F to 83°F. If it gets hotter, how will the films look?
Dark or black
The ideal time and temperature for manual developing is:
5 minutes at 68°F
What is the cause of white spots on a processed film?
Fixer contacts film prior to processing
When loading the film into the cassette before exposure (in extraoral radiography), the:
procedure must be done in the darkroom.
A _____ image is produced when x-rays interact with the film emulsion.
Extraoral film is:
more sensitive to light than intraoral film
Digital radiography requires less radiation than traditional radiography because the:
sensor is more sensitive to x-ray energy
Which of the following statements is true regarding federal and state regulations on the use of dental x-ray equipment?
Most states have laws that require inspections of dental x-ray equipment on a regular basis.
The Consumer-Patient Radiation Health and Safety Act is a federal law that requires all:
a. persons who use x-rays to take dental images to be properly trained

b. persons who use x-rays to take dental images to be certified

Dental images are the property of the:
What should the dental assistant do if a patient refuses dental imaging?
a. document in the patient's record the fact that he or she refused recommended dental imaging
b. explain to the patient the importance of dental imaging

Quality assurance is a way of ensuring that everything possible is being done to produce high-quality diagnostic images and includes quality:
a. administration procedures
c. control tests
d. both a and c

According to the test for x-ray film freshness, if the processed film appears _____, the film is fresh and has been properly stored and handled.
clean with a slight blue tint
The safelight in the darkroom can be tested by:
using the coin test
The most critical component in film processing quality control is:
maintaining the freshness of the processing solutions
Developer strength can be checked by using a:
reference image; stepwedge image
In order for a film to be properly processed, it should be left in a fixer solution, at full strength, for how long?
2 minutes
Who is responsible for overall quality assurance in a dental practice?
the dentist
According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Guidelines for Infection Control in Dental Healthcare Settings----2003, digital radiography sensors:
should use the FDA-cleared barriers
What should be done after removing each exposed film or PSP from the patient's mouth?
wipe saliva from the film packet using a dry 2x2-inch gauze sponge or paper towel
Regulations regarding certification for dental assistants in radiography:
vary from state to state
It is the responsibility of the ______ to discuss the need for dental imaging.
Which of the following must be disclosed to the patient before obtaining informed consent?
a. risk and benefits of the images
b. person who will be exposing
c. consequences of not having images
d. all of the above

Who can be held legally responsible for dental assistant's actions?
both the dentist and assistant
Dental records must contain documentation of the _____ of dental images taken.
a. number
b. type
c. quality
d. all of the above

Which is not true regarding the transfer of dental images?
the originals are sent
Calibration of dental x-ray equipment should be performed by:
a qualified technician
The simplest method for ensuring that each box of film is fresh is to:
process one film from each box with fresh chemicals
Once films are removed from the mouth, they are considered contaminated and should be:
handled only with gloved hands
Which is not true regarding the care of intensifying screens?
screens should be cleaned with a commercial cleaner after each use
After performing the film-screen contact test, areas of good film-screen contact will:
be uniform
Quality control for the darkroom should include:
a. checking for light leaks every six months
b. safelight testing
c. equipment testing
d. all of the above

Which of the following is not true regarding the preparation of the operator for dental imaging?
barriers do not need to be used because spatter of blood and saliva is unlikely
Which is the following is correct for decreasing contamination of dental imaging equipment and supplies?
a. gather all supplies needed before beginning the procedure
b. use overgloves if additional supplies are needed during a procedure
c. ask for help
d. all of the above are correct

Sterilized positioning instruments should be removed from the packages:
after the patient is seated
are a major source of cross contamination
Transporting PSP films should be done by placing them in:
a black transfer box
With normal usage, processing solutions should be changed:
every 3 to 4 weeks
An administrative quality control plan:
a. ensures that each individual is trained to perform assigned duties
b. maintains a written description of the quality assurance plan
c. maintains records of control tests
d. all of the above

The daily radiograph is lighter than the reference radiograph. This indicates the developer is too:
A record-keeping log fro processing solution does not need to include:
what the tanks were cleaned with