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46 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
which is not a component of innate immunity
a) skin
b) inflammation
c) fever
d) antibody
d) antibody
which is not involved in specific immunity
a) antibody
b) T cell
c) B cell
d) tear flow
d) tear flow
skin and mucous membranes are mostly involved in
a) specific immunity
b) autoimmunity
c) irregular immunity
d) nonspecific immunity
d) nonspecific immunity
skin and mucous membranes
a) are the first line of innate immunity
b) are the first line of adaptive immunity
c) act as physical barriers to infection
d) contain antimicrobial secretions
e) A, C, and D
e) A, C, and D
interferons, complement, lysozyme, and lactoferrin are all examples of
a) specific antimicrobial factors
b) immune enzymes
c) nonspecific antimicrobial factors
d) cytokines
c) nonspecific antimicrobial factors
Normal flora
a) are the organisms that typically reside on your body
b) protect against infection by pathogens
c) enhance infection by pathogens
d) play no role in affecting pathogen growth
e) A and B
e) A and B
factors that work generically against any foreign substance entering the host are described as
a) innate immunity
b) specific immunity
c) irregular immunity
d) immune metabolism
a) innate immunity
cells primarily involved in all immune responses are the
a) erthrocytes
b) platelets
c) osteocytes
d) leukocytes
d) leukocytes
in humans, the stem cells from which all blood cells arise are found in the
a) peripheral circulation
b) lymphatic vessels
c) lymph nodes
d) bone marrow
d) bone marrow
all blood cells originate from the
a) erythrocyte
b) leukocytic stem cell
c) eosinophilic stem cell
d) hematopoietic stem cell
d) hematopoietic stem cell
which of the following is a phagocytic cell found in the human body
a) erythrocyte
b) neutrophil
c) B cell
d) T cell
b) neutrophil
the leukocyte that contains histamine is the
a) lymphocyte
b) monocyte
c) macrophage
d) basophil
d) basophil
allergic reactions mainly involve
a) macrophages
b) monocytes
c) neutrophils
d) mast cells
d) mast cells
which of the following are referred to as mononuclear phagocytes
a) lymphocytes and basophils
b) mast cells and eosinophils
c) basophils and eosinophils
d) monocytes and macrophages
d) monocytes and macrophages
the leukocyte responsible for adaptive immunity is the
a) lymphocyte
b) monocyte
c) eosinophil
d) neutrophil
a) lymphocyte
the "voices" of a cell are
a) surface receptors
b) platelets
c) cytokines
d) antigens
c) cytokins
toll-like receptors
a) are cytokines
b) each recognize a specific "danger" molecule
c) transmit a message to the cell's nucleus
d) are part of the adaptive immunity
e) B and C
e) B and C
Complement
a) may be activated through three pathways
b) disrupts the cytoplasmic membrane of invading bacteria and foreign cells
c) is part of the specific defense system
d) is a group of blood proteins
e) A, B, and D
e) A, B, and D
the complement pathway that requires antibodies to be activated is the
a) alternate pathway
b) classical pathway
c) properdin pathway
d) inflammatory pathway
b) classic pathway
complement pathway that is activated by mannan binding lectins is the
a) classical pathway
b) alternate pathway
c) C3 pathway
d) lectin pathway
d) lectin pathway
complement pathway that is activated by binding of C3bto cell surfaces is the
a) classical pathway
b) alternate pathway
c) C3 pathway
d) mucociliary pathway
b) alternate pathway
the key molecule upon which all complement pathways converge is
a) C1
b) C2
c) C3
d) C6
c) C3
C3a and C5a are involved in
a) inflammation
b) interferon production
c) properidin activation
d) enhancement of phagocytosis
e) A and D
e) A and D
C3b is involved in
a) opsonization
b) interferon production
c) properidin activation
d) endotoxin production
a) opsonization
complex resulting from complement activity that leads to cell lysis is the
a) prostaglandin complex
b) leukotriene activating complex
c) membrane attack complex
d) histamine complex
c) membrane attack complex
which of the following are most susceptible to complement lysis
a) gram-positive bacteria
b) gram-negativie bacteria
c) bacteriophages
d) prions
b) gram-negative bacteria
low molecular weight protein produced by animal cells in response to viral infections is
a) complement
b) lysozyme
c) histamine
d) interferon
d) interferon
interleukins are
a) produced by leukocytes
b) important in both innate and adaptive immunity
c) involved in directly killing tumor cells
d) protein molecules
e) A and D
e) A and D
the presence of long double-stranded RNA (> 30bp)
a) indicates infection by an RNA virus other than a retrovirus
b) indicates infection by a virus
c) indicates exposure to mutagens
d) induces synthesis of interferons
e) A and D
e) A and D
interferons function to make cells
a) resistant to viral replication
b) lyse when exposed to virus
c) non-motile when infected with virus
d) resistant to phagocytosis
a) resistant to viral replication
cellular organelle responsible for the digestion of ingested infectious agents is the
a) endoplasmic reticulum
b) golgi apparatus
c) phagolysosome
d) lysosome
c) phagolysosome
following digestion of a microorganism by phagocytes, the debris is excreted by
a) ingestion
b) exocytosis
c) extrusion
d) budding
b) exocytosis
four cardinal signs of inflammation are
a) flare, wheals, fever, cough
b) rash, pus, heat, rubor
c) heat, pain, vesicles, fever
d) redness, heat, swelling, pain
d) redness, heat, swelling, pain
first host response to a nonspecific tissue injury is described as
a) inflammation
b) reaction
c) antibodies
d) trauma
a) inflammation
first kind of leukocyte lured to the site of inflammation is the
a) neutrophil
b) monocyte
c) macrophile
d) basophil
a) neutrophil
attraction of leukocytes to the area on inflammation is referred to as
a) parasitism
b) infection
c) phototaxis
d) chemotaxis
d) chemotaxis
one of the strongest indications of infectious disease is
a) rash
b) pustules
c) vesicles
d) fever
d) fever
pyrogens are
a) fever-inducing substances
b) fever-inhibiting substances
c) phagocytosis-enhancing substances
d) complement activators
a) fever-inducing substances
fever
a) enhances bacterial growth
b) inhibits bacterial growth
c) speeds up the body's reactions
d) triggers complement
e) B and C
e) B and C
select all the structures or substances that are considered part of the first-line defenses
a) mucous membranes
b) lysozyme
c) skin
d) immunoglobulins
e) B lymphocytes
a) mucous membranes
b) lysozyme
c) skin
increased number of eosinophils might indicate
a) an allergic response
b) cancer
c) viral infection
d) fever
a) allergic response
monocytes migrate into tissue to develop into macrophages
a) true
b) false
a) true
toll-like receptors detect the following substances
a) flagellin
b) LPS
c) phospholipids
d) peptidoglycan
e) interleukins
A, B, D
giant cells are
a) large neutrophils
b) a type of cell where many macrophages have fused together to destroy a microbe
c) often found in granulomas
d) A and C
e) B and C
e) B and C
phagocytes move out of the blood stream by a process called exoctosis
a) true
b) false
b) false
pyrogen that is secreted by a microbe is called
a) an endogenous pyrogn
b) exogenous pyrogen
b) exogenous pyrogen