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219 Cards in this Set

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Diplococci

cocci that remain attached in pairs

Streptococci

long chains of cocci

Staphylococci

clusters of cocci

Streptobacilli

long chains of bacilli

Budding

A few bacteria and some eukaryotes (including yeasts), forming a bubble-like growth that enlarges and separates from theparent cell

BinaryFission

identical 2 cells unlessthere is a mutation, cell replicates its DNA, the cytoplasmic membraneelongates separating DNA molecules, and cross-wall form

Snapping Division

not a equal division, nucleoid replicates, and new nucleoid moves into bud

Endospore

extremely resistant


constitute a defensive strategy against hostile or unfavorable conditions


stable resting stages


can remain viable for tens to thousands of years serious concern to food processors, health care professionals, and governments


each vegetative cell transforms into one


each germinates to form one vegetative cell

Methanogen

Convertcarbon dioxide, hydrogen gas, and organic acids to methane gas greenhouse gas


largest group of Achaea


convert organic wastes in pond, lake, and oceansediments to methane


some live in colons of animals


are one of primarysources of environmental methane


have produced ~10 trillion tons of methanethat is buried in mud on ocean floor


15-20% water 3% salinity

Extremophiles

Require extreme conditions of temperature, pH and/or salinity to survive



Thermophiles

DNA, RNA, cytoplasmic membranes, and proteinsdo not function properly below 45ºC

Halophiles

Inhabit extremely saline habitats, depend on greater than 9% NaCl to maintain integrity of cell walls, contain red or orange pigments; protection from visible and UV light

Gall

resulting from infection by the -proteobacterium Agrobacterium


Formed by the proliferation of undifferentiated plant cells caused by the expression of a plant growth hormone gene inserted into a plant chromosome by a plasmid carried by the infecting Agrobacterium cells.


Synthesizes nutrients for the bacteria

Deeply branching Bacteria

are very ancestral forms


closest living relatives of the earliest living things on Earth.


They are autotrophic, anaerobic to microaerophilic and thermophilic

PhototrophicBacteria

are alphaproteobacteria and gammaproteobacteria that are obligate aerobes that capture energy from light by anoxygenic photosynthesis.

NitrogenFixation

someprokaryotes convert atmospheric nitrogen (N2) to ammonia (NH3)

NitrogenFixers

important to all living things fix nitrogen, take nitrogen from atmosphere→ammonium is taken from nitrifying bacteria to produce nitrate→most useful type of nitrogen for plants, adding ammonifying bacteria to thesoil can cause the same process

Bacillus

Endospore-forming aerobes, and facultative anaerobes

Bacillusanthracis

causes anthrax,


found in the soil,


endospores inhaled or enter body through breaksin the skin

Bacilluscereus

Spores found in rice cooking rice usually kills it

Bacillusthuringiensis

Produces crystalline protein that is toxic to caterpillars→used as a pesticide or promotes the growth and natural control caterpillars

Listeria

Can contaminate milk and meat→ can’t drink raw milk


no spores


continues to reproduce in the refrigerator, pasteurization lowers the numbers, problem when crosses placenta from infected mother (causes meningitis)


more common before they started pasteurizing milk

Bdellovibrio

Pathogenic→not to us but to other bacteria specifically to gram negative bacteria

Anthrax

Found in the soil and Endospores inhaled or enter body through breaks in the skin


biological warfare

RootNodules

small swelling or aggregation of cells in the body, especially an abnormal one


a swelling on a root of a leguminous plant, containing nitrogen-fixing bacteria.

Endosymbioticrelationship

a type of symbiosis in which one organism lives inside the other, the two typically behaving as a single organism

Haploid

Single copy


most fungi, many algae, and someprotozoa

Diploid

Two copies, remaining fungi, algae, humans, andprotozoa

Meiosis

formation of cells that are haploid and sex cells


Nuclear division involving partitioning of chromatidsinto four nuclei. Diploid nuclei use meiosis to produce haploid daughter nucleifor sexual reproduction

Mitosis

formation of cells that are diploid and body cells


Begins after cell has duplicated its DNA; cellpartitions replicated DNA equally between two nuclei. Maintains ploidy ofparent nucleus

Prophase

nuclear envelope breaks apart and chromosomes become shorter

Metaphase

all chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell

Anaphase

the 2 copies are being separated from each other… pulled apart

Telophase

cytokinesis…nuclear envelope forming… creating two new diploid cells

Coenocytes

multinucleatedcells

Macronucleus

contains many copies of genome – controls metabolism, growth, and sexual reproduction

Micronucleus

involved in genetic recombination, sexual reproduction, and regeneration of macronuclei

Mixotrophic

eatother things, combining autotrophic and heterotrophic nutrition modes

Cyst

is a dormant cell with a resistant outer covering; the cyst allows a free-living species to over winter and helps certain parasitic species survive the host’s digestive juices

Cystsof Protozoans

are thick-walled structures that, like spores, protectbacteria from harm


somewhat less durable than endospores and exospore.


can be airborne.


Contain one or more infective forms. Multiplication occurs in the cysts of some species so that excystation releases more than one organism.


Cysts passed in stools have a protective wall, enabling the parasite to survive in the outside environment for a period ranging from days to a year, depending on the species and environmental conditions

BacterialEndospores

isa dormant, tough, and non-reproductive structure produced by a small number ofbacteria from the Firmicute phylum.


The primary function is to ensure the survival of a bacterium through periods of environmental stress.


They are therefore resistant to ultraviolet and gamma radiation, desiccation,lysozyme, temperature, starvation, and chemical disinfectants.


commonly found in soil and water, where they may survive for long periods of time

Spores

is are productive cell that can grow directly into a new organism, readily dispersed by wind

Ciliates

a large varied group of protists


They discharge long, barbed trichocysts for defense and for capturing prey; toxicysts release a poison

Paramecium

Live in fresh water move by the means of cilia

Dinoflagellates

Are adiverse group of aquatic photoautotrophs and heterotrophs,


Use two flagella to whirl


Are abundant components of both marine [salt water] and freshwater phytoplankton


cause red or green tide- release poison that kills fish and hurt ducks which is why were told not to swim then

Amoeba

move by the means of pseudopodia

Trichocysts

for defense and capturing prey

Toxicysts

release a poison

Heterotrophic

An organism that cannot manufacture its own food and instead obtains its food and energy by taking in organic substances, usually plant or animal matter

Plasmodium

Parasites of animals, causes malaria

Amomoebas

And actively seek and consume bacteria and other protists

Euglenozoa

are a large group of flagellate protozoa.


They include a variety of common free-living species, as well as a few important parasites, some of which infect humans

Fungi

Can spoil fruit, pickles, jams, and jellies

Fungal mycelium

provide increased surface area.


The fungus provides minerals from soil for theplants, and the plants provides organic nutrients

Predatoryheterotrophs

An organism that is unable to manufacture its own food from simple chemical compounds and therefore consumes other organisms, living or dead, as its main source of carbon.

Photosyntheticautrophs

Organisms that use light for the energy to synthesize organic compounds

Pathogenicparasites

parasite that cause a disease

Euglena

mixotroph

Trichomonasvaginalis

Acommon inhabitant of the vagina in human females

Trypanosoma

Protozoa


causes sleeping sickness transferred by African tsetse fly

Euglena

Found only in fresh water


autotrophic


if no sunlight, becomes heterotrophic


two flagella,


Light detector- one cell that takes direction of light,


Eyespot-reflecting the light

GiardiaLamblia

Modified mitochondria


multiple flagella


two separate nuclei


simple cytoskeleton, noplastid, protozoa


a parasite that infects the human intestine, causing abdominal cramps and severe diarrhea

Giardia

causes diarrhea


Reason why you need to boil water first in mountains before you drinkit

Algae

Simple, eukaryotic, phototrophic organisms that carry out oxygenic photosynthesis using chlorophyll a.


Have sexual reproductive structures; every cell becomes a gamete.


Differ widely in distribution, morphology, reproduction, and biochemical traits

BrownAlgae

Marine


Dominant pigment is brown


provide food and habitat for marine organisms, and they are also important to humans and all are multicellular.

RedAlgae

Are usually multicellular


the largest are seaweeds


Are the most abundant largealgae in coastal waters of the tropics


chiefly marine multicellular algae thatlive in warmer seawater


possess a red and a blue pigment in addition tochlorophyll.


They are generally much smaller and more delicate than brownalgae.


Some are filamentous, but most are branched, having a feathery, flat, or ribbonlike appearance

GreenAlgae

Contain predominant green pigment


Mostly freshwater; some are marine; even found indamp soil and ice


Unicellular Multicellular; some are colonial,


Balls of cells that are photosynthetic

Volvox

a colonial Green Algae


is a hollow sphere with thousands of cells arranged in a single layer


cooperate when flagella beat in a coordinated fashion

Colony

is a loose association of independent cells

Mycologists

is the branch of biology concerned with the study of fungi, including their genetic and biochemical properties

Saprotrophic

feed on decaying plant material

Chytrids

play arole in the decay and digestion of dead aquatic organisms


some are parasiticon plants, animals, and protists.

Mycelium

tube like structure in fungi

Hyphae

vegetative bodies of most fungi are constructed of tiny filaments that form a tiny interwoven map

Chitin

is a polymer of glucose molecules organized into microfibrils and each glucose molecule has attached nitrogen-containing amino group

Nonseptateor aseptate

their hyphae are not partitioned by septa

Septate

have dividers between the cells called septa(singular septum).


The septa have openings called pores between the cells, to allow the flow of cytoplasm and nutrients throughout the mycelium


septa dividethe hyphae into compartments but not into cells

Exoenzymes

an enzyme that acts outside the cell that produces it

Rhizopus

a genus of common saprophytic fungi on plants and specialized parasites on animals. They are found on a wide variety of organic substrates, including "mature fruits and vegetables", jellies, syrups, leather, bread, peanuts, and tobacco.

Ascomycetes

a fungus whose spores develop within asci. The ascomycetes include most molds, mildews, and yeasts, the fungal component of most lichens, and a few large forms such as morels and truffles.

Parasiticfungi

fungi that cause disease in humans or other organisms

Mycorrhizae

are mutualistic relationships between soil fungi and roots of most plants, it helps the roots absorb more minerals; in turn, the plant passes on carbohydrates to the fungus

Lichen

Is a symbiotic association between a fungus and a cyanobacterium or a green algae


Special fungal hyphae penetrate or envelope the photosynthetic cells and transfer nutrients directly to the rest of the fungus.

Compactcrustose lichens

are often seen on bare rocks or tree bark

Folioselichens

are leaflike

Fruticoselichens

are shrublike

Dikaryon

is a nuclear feature which is unique to some fungi

Zygosporangium

a sporangium in which zygospores are produced

Zygospore

a thick wall develops around the cell


undergoes a period of dormancy before meiosis and germination takes place

Sporangium

is a capsule that produces spores

Virus

found either inside a cell (intracellular) or outside of a cell (extracellular)

Viroid

These are very small, circular RNA (may appear linear), and infectious in plants.


They do not contain a capsid

Prion

Prions are proteinaceous infective particles. Prions do not contain nucleic acid.


Prions contain a single protein called PrP.

Obligate intracellular parasites

cannot reproduce outside their host cell, meaning that the parasite's reproduction is entirely reliant on intracellular resources

Virion

the complete, infective form of a virus outside a host cell, with a core of RNA or DNA and a capsid

Generalists

infect many kinds of cells in many different hosts

Capsids

a protein coating, which surrounds the core of the virus containing the nucleic acid (either DNA or RNA)

Capsomere

is a bunch of proteins

ViralEnvelope

Protection, host recognition, and providing shape to the virus


Virus gains the envelope from their host


Membranes surrounding its capsid


are made up of proteins, phospholipid bilayer, and some glycoproteins protruding out (looking like spikes) at the surface of the virus.

ViralCapsid

protein coats that provide protection for viral nucleic acid and means of attachment to host’s cells


capsules come from are cells, host cells but put their onproteins on it to modify it


composed of proteinaceous subunits


some capsids composed of single type of capsomere


other composed of multiple types

Neoplasia

uncontrolledcell division in multicellular animal; mass of neoplastic cells is tumor

Benigntumors

is a massof cells (tumor) that lacks the ability to invade neighboring tissue ormetastasize, non-cancerous, do not spread

Malignanttumor

are cancerous and are made up of cells that grow out of control.


Cells in these tumors can invade nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the body.

Metastasis

the development of secondary malignant growths at a distance from a primary site of cancer

Carcinogens

a substance capable of causing cancer in living tissue

Burkitt’sLymphoma

is cancer of the lymphatic system

Hodgkin’sDisease

is a type of lymphoma, in which cancer originates from white blood cells called lymphocytes.

Kaposi’ssarcoma

is a cancer that develops from the cells that line lymph or blood vessels

CervicalCancer

is a type of cancer that occurs in the cells of the cervix— the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina.

Proto-oncogenes

A normal gene which, when altered by mutation,becomes an oncogene that can contribute to cancer

Lytic Cycle

is a bacteriophage’s “life” cycle, 5 stages- attachment, penetration, Biosynthesis,maturation, release

Attachment[lytic/Lysogenic cycle]

portions of the capsid bind with receptors on the bacterial cell wall

Penetration[lytic/Lysogenic cycle]

a viral enzyme digests part of cell wall; the viral DNA is injected into a bacterial cell.

Biosynthesis[lytic cycle]

involves synthesis of viral components and begins after the virus brings about inactivation of host genes not necessary to viral replication

Maturation[lytic cycle]

viral DNA and capsids are assembled to produce several hundred viral particles and lysozyme, coded by the virus, is produced

Release[lytic cycle]

When lysozyme disrupts the cell wall, release of the viral particles occurs and the bacterial cell dies.

LysogenicCycle

the virus incorporates its DNA into the bacterium but only later is phage produced.Attachment, penetration, Integration, Latent, Prophage, Induced

Integration[Lysogenic Cycle]

Following attachment and penetration, viral DNA becomes integrated into bacterial DNA with no destruction of the host DNA

Latent[Lysogenic Cycle]

At this point, the phage is latent and the viral DNA is called a prophage

Prophage[Lysogenic Cycle]

The prophage is replicated along with host DNA; all subsequent cells (lysogenic cells) carry a copy.

Induced[Lysogenic Cycle]

Certain environmental factors (e.g., ultraviolet radiation) induce prophage to enter the biosynthesis stage of the lytic cycle, followed by maturation and release.

Lyticcycle advantages

The host cell's DNA is destroyed and the virus takes over the cell's metabolic activities.


The virus begins using the cell energy for its own propagation.


The virus hijacks the infected cell and then destroys it.


There is a predominance of lytic among temperate phages, as induction can cause lysogenic to convert to lytic.


Replication of the new viruses is fast.

Lyticcycle disadvantages

the host is also immediately killed preventing the viral genome from passing onto the next generation of host cells

LysogenicCycle advantages

the viral DNA or RNA remains in the cell and it may remain there permanently, create multiple

LysogenicCycle disadvantages

There are no viral symptoms in the lysogenic cycle; it occurs after the viral infection is over.

Lysing

During the lytic cycle, the cell starts getting overcrowded; the original virus releases enzymes to break the cell wall. The cell wall bursts and new virusesare released

Firstmechanisms of entry used by animal viruses to enter the host

the virion attaches to the host cell receptors by specific proteins on its surface called spikes.


The envelope of the virus fuses w/ the plasma membrane of the host and the nucleocapsid is released directly into the cytoplasm.


The nucleic acid then separates from the protein coat.

Secondmechanisms of entry used by animal viruses toenter the host

the enveloped virus absorbs to the host cell by specific proteins on its surface and the virion is taken in by endocytosis.


In this process the host cell plasma membrane surrounds the whole virion and forms a vesicle. The envelope of the virion then fuses w/ the plasma membrane of the vesicle and the nucleocapsid is release into the host’s cytoplasm.


The capsid protein is then removed, releasing the nucleic acid in of the virus.

CellularPrP

stable tertiary structures


normal functional structure with α-helices

PrionPrP

stable tertiary structures


disease-causingform with β-sheets

Symbiosis

to live together

Symbioticrelationship

the relationship between microorganisms and their host

Mutualism

organisms living together and benefitting each other→bacteria in human colon→bacteria makes vitamins that we use and help w/ digestion and they live in a nice warm environment with allot of food, [termites live in bacteria and they break down wood]

Commenalism

live together but neither benefit nor harm


Tapeworm in human intestine

Parasitism

live together but one loses on gains

Pathogen

a bacterium, virus, or other microorganisms that can cause a disease

NormalMicrobiota

organisms that colonize the body’s surfaces without normally causing disease

ResidentMicrobiota

all the microorganism that live in a animal or a human compete w/ other organism→reduce the possibility of bad microorganisms that are pathogenic

TransientMicrobiota

Remain inthe body for only hours to months before disappearing

Axenic

development in womb

OpportunisticPathogens

Normal microbiota that can cause disease under certain circumstances

Immunesuppression

the inhibition of the normal immune response because of disease

Contamination

The mere presence of microbes in or on the body

Infection

Results when the organism has evaded the body’s external defenses, multiplied, and become established in the body

Portalsof Entry

Sites through which pathogens enter the body

PoE-Skin

acts as a barrier to pathogens


some pathogens can enter through openings or cuts, and others enter by burrowing into or digesting the outer layers of skin

PoE-MucousMembranes

Line the body cavities that are open to the environment, provide a moist, warm environment that is hospitable to pathogens

PoE-Placenta

is to promote selective transport of nutrients and waste products between mother and fetus

PoE-Parenteralroute

Pathogens deposited directly into tissues beneath the skin or mucous membranes

Adhesion

Process by which microorganisms attach themselves to cells

AttachmentProteins

Found on viruses(attachment proteins) and many bacteria (adhesins) → HAVE TO ATTACH

Ligands

lipoproteinsor glycoproteins that binds host cell receptors

Symptoms

subjective characteristics of disease felt onlyby the patient

Signs

objective manifestations of disease that can be observed or measured by others

Syndrome

group of symptoms and signs that characterize a disease or abnormal condition

Asymptomatic, or subclinical

infections lack symptoms but may still have signs of infection

Germtheory of Disease

disease caused by infections of pathogenic microorganisms

Pathogenicity

ability of a microorganism to cause disease

Virulence

degree of pathogenicity

ExtracellularEnzymes

enzymes secreted by the pathogen [Hyaluronidase and collagenase] that block enzymes


dissolve structural chemicals in the body


help pathogen maintain infection


invade further


avoid body defenses [coagulase and kinase]

Hyaluronidase

a family of enzymes that degrade hyaluronic acid

Collagenase

are enzymes thatbreak the peptide bonds in collagen.


They assist in destroying extracellular structures in the pathogenesis of bacteria such as Clostridium

Coagulase

a bacterial enzyme that brings about the coagulation of blood or plasma and is produced by disease-causing forms of staphylococcus

Kinase

an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to a specified molecule.

Toxins

Chemicals produced by the pathogen, harm tissues or trigger host immune responses that causes damage

Toxemia

toxins in the bloodstream that are carried beyond the site of infections

Exotoxins

a toxin released by a living bacterial cell into its surroundings

Cytotoxins

are the chemical weapons that Killer T-cells use to destroy infected cells

Endotoxins

a toxin that is present inside a bacterial cell and is released when the cell disintegrates.

LipidA

is a lipid component of an endotoxin held responsible for the toxicity of gram-negative bacteria

Antiphagocyticfactors

factors prevent phagocytosis by the host’s phagocytic cells

Bacterialcapsule

Often composed of chemicals found in the body and not recognized as foreign


can be slippery making it difficult for phagocytes to engulf the bacteria

Leukocidins

directly destroy phagocytic white blood cells

Stages of infectious disease

sequence of events following infection

Incubation period

no signs and symptoms detected while the virus is incubating.


It is the time elapsed between exposure to a pathogenic organism, a chemical or radiation, and when symptoms and signs are first apparent.

Prodromal Period

neither a stage where there are vague and general symptoms, not more nor less.

Illness

It is a stage which has the most severe signs and symptoms.


The illness stage is an interval when patient manifests signs and symptoms specific to type of infection.

Decline

is a time when there is declining signs and symptoms

Convalescence

is a period when there are NO signs and symptoms at all


It is the gradual recovery of health and strength after an illness.

Reservoirs of Infections

most pathogens cannot survive long outside of their host,sites where pathogens are maintained as a source of infection

Zoonoses

diseases that are naturally spread from their usual animal hosts to humans

Human carriers

infected individuals are asymptomatic but infective to others


some individuals will eventually develop illness while others never get sick

Nonliving reservoir

soil, water, and food,


presence of microorganisms is often due to contamination by feces or urine

Modes of infectious Disease Transmission

transmission from either a reservoir or portal of exit

Portal of exits

Secretions - eyes, ears, nose, mouth


Skin - flakes or blood


Blood - needles, bites, wounds


Vaginal secretions/semen


Excreted body wastes


Urine, feces, sweat

Contact transmission

person-to-person spread

Direct contact transmission

person-to-person, placental, fecal-oral

Indirect Contact transmission

inanimate object carries pathogen


agent of disease is transmitted from its reservoir to a susceptible host by means of nonliving object

Vehicle Transmission

are animals that transmit diseases from one host to another


the vehicle contacts the person's body.
It may be ingested (eatenor drunk), touch the skin, or be introduced internally during surgery ormedical treatment

Air-borne Transmission

spread of agents in aerosol droplets that travel more than 1 meter from reservoir to host

Droplet Transmission

microbes spread in aerosol droplets (mucusdroplets) discharged in air by sneezing, coughing, laughing, talking.


Travel short distances a meter or less away arms length distance over a meter

Vector Transmission

Vectors are animals that carry pathogens from one host toanother

Mechanical Vector Transmission

passive transport of pathogens on insects’ feet or otherbody part not required as host by pathogen

Biological Vector Transmission

insect carries pathogen in body, host is oftenpart of pathogens life cycle, transmits pathogen to host when it bites host.

Anthropods

an invertebrate animal of the large phylum Arthropoda, such as an insect, spider, or crustacean.

Epidemiology

study of where and when diseases occur and how they are transmitted w/in population

Incidence

number of new cases of a disease in a given are during agiven period of time

Prevalence

number of total cases of a disease in a given are during agiven period of time

Endemic

(of a disease or condition) regularly found among particular people or in a certain area.

Sporadic

occurring at irregular intervals or only in a few places; scattered or isolated.

Epidemic

a widespread occurrence of an infectious disease in a community at a particular time

Pandemic

(of a disease) prevalent over a whole country or the world

Descriptive Epidemiology

careful tabulation of data concerning a disease,record information about the location and time of the cases of disease, collect patient information


try to identify the index case (or first case) of the disease

Analytical Epidemiology

to determine the probable cause, mode of transmission, and methods of prevention


useful in situations in which Koch’s postulates can’t beapplied,


often retrospective- investigation occurs after on outbreak has occurred

Experimental Epidemiology

involves testing a hypothesis concerning thecause of a disease, application of Koch’s postulates is experimental epidemiology

Nosocomial infections

infections acquired while in a health care facility

Exogenous

pathogen acquired from the health care environment

Endogenous

pathogens arise from normal microbiota due to factors within the health care setting

Iatrogenic

results from modern medical procedures

Etiology

the cause, set of causes, or manner of causation of a disease or condition

Koch’s Postulates

were formulated in the late nineteenth century as guidelines for establishing that microbes cause specific diseases.

reservoir of infection

Sites where pathogens exist and are maintained as a source of infection, once they leave the host (place or location where the pathogen goes)

compromised host

Host competence


risk factors for infection are immunocompromised, lifestyle, occupation, trauma, travel, age.


A person or something having something wrong with them

Morbidity

number of individuals within a disease during a set period of time divided by the total population

mortality

number of deaths due to a specific disease during a specific period of time divided by the total population

common source outbreak

group of people all exposed to a pathogen. arises from contact with contaminated substances (food, water)

propagated epidemic

amplification of infection as a result of person-to-person contact (cold/flu person to person contact)

nationally notifiable disease

A disease that is well-known. Health departments (local and state), Nationally (CDC) Worldwide (WHO)

FOMITES

Bed sheets, towels, needles, razors, toothbrushes, money, drinking glasses, and medical equipment